Abstract

Many kinds of subsurface defects are always present together in the subsurface of fused silica optics. It is imperfect that only one kind of defects is isolated to investigate its impact on laser damage. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the impact of subsurface defects on laser induced damage of fused silica optics with a comprehensive vision. In this work, we choose the fused silica samples manufactured by different vendors to characterize subsurface defects and measure laser induced damage. Contamination defects, subsurface damage (SSD), optical-thermal absorption and hardness of fused silica surface are characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), fluorescence microscopy, photo-thermal common-path interferometer and fully automatic micro-hardness tester respectively. Laser induced damage threshold and damage density are measured by 351 nm nanosecond pulse laser. The correlations existing between defects and laser induced damage are analyzed. The results show that Cerium element and SSD both have a good correlation with laser-induced damage thresholds and damage density. Research results evaluate process technology of fused silica optics in China at present. Furthermore, the results can provide technique support for improving laser induced damage performance of fused silica.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. I. Moses, J. H. Campbell, C. J. Stolz, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility: the world’s largest optics and laser system,” Proc. SPIE5001, 1–15 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. I. Moses, “National ignition facility: 1.8MJ, 750TW ultraviolet laser,” Proc. SPIE5341, 13–24 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. L. André, “Status of the LMJ project,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. André, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 38–42 (1996).
  4. H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).
  5. G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. G. Demos and M. Staggs, “Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser-induced damage,” Appl. Opt.41(10), 1977–1983 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264, 240–250 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. G. Li, H. Huang, R. Q. Xie, H. B. Li, Y. Deng, X. H. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Xu, W. Yang, and Y. B. Guo, “A method for evaluating subsurface damage in optical glass,” Opt. Express18(16), 17180–17186 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18(10), 2607–2616 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology. 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt.26(21), 4677–4680 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. W. Fähnle, T. Wons, E. Koch, S. Debruyne, M. Meeder, S. M. Booij, and J. J. Braat, “iTIRM as a tool for qualifying polishing processes,” Appl. Opt.41(19), 4036–4038 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Wuttig, J. Steinert, A. Duparre, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Surface roughness and subsurface damage charaacterization of fused silica substrates,” in Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing, Proc. SPIE3739, 369–376 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Névot and P. Croce, “Sur l’étude des couches superficielles monoatomiques par reflexion rasante (spéculaire ou diffuse) de rayons X par la méthode de l’empilement sandwich,” J. Appl. Cryst.8(2), 304–314 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Bolorizadeh, S. Ruffell, I. V. Mitchell, and R. Gwilliam, “Quantitative depth profiling of ultra-shallow phosphorus implants in silicon using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and the nuclear reaction 31P(a,p0)34S,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B225, 345–352 (2004).
  23. S. G. Demos and M. Staggs, “Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser-induced damage,” Appl. Opt.41(10), 1977–1983 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. L. Smith and A. J. Cohen, “Absorption spectra of cations in alkali-silicate glasses of high ultra-violet transmission,” Phys. Chem. Glasses4(5), 173–187 (1963).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. I. Moses, “National ignition facility: 1.8MJ, 750TW ultraviolet laser,” Proc. SPIE5341, 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bolorizadeh, S. Ruffell, I. V. Mitchell, and R. Gwilliam, “Quantitative depth profiling of ultra-shallow phosphorus implants in silicon using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and the nuclear reaction 31P(a,p0)34S,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B225, 345–352 (2004).

2003 (1)

E. I. Moses, J. H. Campbell, C. J. Stolz, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility: the world’s largest optics and laser system,” Proc. SPIE5001, 1–15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18(10), 2607–2616 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Wuttig, J. Steinert, A. Duparre, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Surface roughness and subsurface damage charaacterization of fused silica substrates,” in Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing, Proc. SPIE3739, 369–376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1975 (1)

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Sur l’étude des couches superficielles monoatomiques par reflexion rasante (spéculaire ou diffuse) de rayons X par la méthode de l’empilement sandwich,” J. Appl. Cryst.8(2), 304–314 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

H. L. Smith and A. J. Cohen, “Absorption spectra of cations in alkali-silicate glasses of high ultra-violet transmission,” Phys. Chem. Glasses4(5), 173–187 (1963).

Ambard, C.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bercegol, H.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birolleau, J. C.

Bolorizadeh, M. A.

M. A. Bolorizadeh, S. Ruffell, I. V. Mitchell, and R. Gwilliam, “Quantitative depth profiling of ultra-shallow phosphorus implants in silicon using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and the nuclear reaction 31P(a,p0)34S,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B225, 345–352 (2004).

Booij, S. M.

Braat, J. J.

Burnham, A.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Camp, D.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

E. I. Moses, J. H. Campbell, C. J. Stolz, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility: the world’s largest optics and laser system,” Proc. SPIE5001, 1–15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carr, J.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

Chen, Q. H.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. C.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. H.

Cohen, A. J.

H. L. Smith and A. J. Cohen, “Absorption spectra of cations in alkali-silicate glasses of high ultra-violet transmission,” Phys. Chem. Glasses4(5), 173–187 (1963).

Cormont, P.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Croce, P.

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Sur l’étude des couches superficielles monoatomiques par reflexion rasante (spéculaire ou diffuse) de rayons X par la méthode de l’empilement sandwich,” J. Appl. Cryst.8(2), 304–314 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. J.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Debruyne, S.

Demos, S. G.

Deng, X. M.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Destribats, J.

Duparre, A.

A. Wuttig, J. Steinert, A. Duparre, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Surface roughness and subsurface damage charaacterization of fused silica substrates,” in Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing, Proc. SPIE3739, 369–376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, P.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. F.

Ehrt, D.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fähnle, O. W.

Fan, D.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Fan, D. Y.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Funkenbusch, P. D.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Génin, F. Y.

Golini, D.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y. B.

Gwilliam, R.

M. A. Bolorizadeh, S. Ruffell, I. V. Mitchell, and R. Gwilliam, “Quantitative depth profiling of ultra-shallow phosphorus implants in silicon using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and the nuclear reaction 31P(a,p0)34S,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B225, 345–352 (2004).

Hed, P. P.

Huang, G. L.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

Hutcheon, I.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jing, F.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Koch, E.

Kozlowski, M. R.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamaignere, L.

Lamaignére, L.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Legros, P.

Li, H. B.

Li, Y. G.

Lin, Z. Q.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, A.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Z. Q.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Liu, F. Q.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meeder, M.

Menapace, J.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, I. V.

M. A. Bolorizadeh, S. Ruffell, I. V. Mitchell, and R. Gwilliam, “Quantitative depth profiling of ultra-shallow phosphorus implants in silicon using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and the nuclear reaction 31P(a,p0)34S,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B225, 345–352 (2004).

Moses, E. I.

E. I. Moses, “National ignition facility: 1.8MJ, 750TW ultraviolet laser,” Proc. SPIE5341, 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Moses, J. H. Campbell, C. J. Stolz, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility: the world’s largest optics and laser system,” Proc. SPIE5001, 1–15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Natura, U.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neauport, J.

Névot, L.

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Sur l’étude des couches superficielles monoatomiques par reflexion rasante (spéculaire ou diffuse) de rayons X par la méthode de l’empilement sandwich,” J. Appl. Cryst.8(2), 304–314 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. S.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Pilon, F.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pistor, T. V.

Quesnel, D. J.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruffell, S.

M. A. Bolorizadeh, S. Ruffell, I. V. Mitchell, and R. Gwilliam, “Quantitative depth profiling of ultra-shallow phosphorus implants in silicon using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and the nuclear reaction 31P(a,p0)34S,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B225, 345–352 (2004).

Runkel, M.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

Sheehan, L.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. L.

H. L. Smith and A. J. Cohen, “Absorption spectra of cations in alkali-silicate glasses of high ultra-violet transmission,” Phys. Chem. Glasses4(5), 173–187 (1963).

Staggs, M.

Steele, R.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steele, R. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, J.

A. Wuttig, J. Steinert, A. Duparre, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Surface roughness and subsurface damage charaacterization of fused silica substrates,” in Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing, Proc. SPIE3739, 369–376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

E. I. Moses, J. H. Campbell, C. J. Stolz, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility: the world’s largest optics and laser system,” Proc. SPIE5001, 1–15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sui, Z.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Suratwala, T.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torres, R.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Truckenbrodt, H.

A. Wuttig, J. Steinert, A. Duparre, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Surface roughness and subsurface damage charaacterization of fused silica substrates,” in Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing, Proc. SPIE3739, 369–376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walmer, D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, S. J.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X. F.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Wong, L.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L. L.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wons, T.

Wuest, C. R.

E. I. Moses, J. H. Campbell, C. J. Stolz, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility: the world’s largest optics and laser system,” Proc. SPIE5001, 1–15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, A.

A. Wuttig, J. Steinert, A. Duparre, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Surface roughness and subsurface damage charaacterization of fused silica substrates,” in Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing, Proc. SPIE3739, 369–376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G. Y.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R. Q.

Xu, Q.

Yan, M.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

Zeller, L.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Zhao, Q.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Zhen, Y. X.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W. G.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Zhou, J. Q.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. Q.

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett.36(6), 566–572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Sur l’étude des couches superficielles monoatomiques par reflexion rasante (spéculaire ou diffuse) de rayons X par la méthode de l’empilement sandwich,” J. Appl. Cryst.8(2), 304–314 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Subsurface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B (1)

M. A. Bolorizadeh, S. Ruffell, I. V. Mitchell, and R. Gwilliam, “Quantitative depth profiling of ultra-shallow phosphorus implants in silicon using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and the nuclear reaction 31P(a,p0)34S,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B225, 345–352 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, L. Lamaignére, C. Ambard, F. Pilon, and H. Bercegol, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

H. L. Smith and A. J. Cohen, “Absorption spectra of cations in alkali-silicate glasses of high ultra-violet transmission,” Phys. Chem. Glasses4(5), 173–187 (1963).

Proc. SPIE (6)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE5991, 599101, 599101-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. Sheehan, D. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing induced contamination on fused silica surface,” Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Moses, J. H. Campbell, C. J. Stolz, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility: the world’s largest optics and laser system,” Proc. SPIE5001, 1–15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Moses, “National ignition facility: 1.8MJ, 750TW ultraviolet laser,” Proc. SPIE5341, 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, Z. Sui, Q. Zhao, D. Fan, Z. Q. Ling, and J. Q. Zhou, “Design of 60-kJ SG-III laser facility and related technology development,” Proc. SPIE4424, 98–103 (2001).

G. Y. Xiao, D. Y. Fan, S. J. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, Y. Gu, J. Q. Zhu, Y. X. Zhen, J. Zhu, F. Q. Liu, S. C. Chen, Q. H. Chen, G. L. Huang, and X. M. Deng, “SG-II solid-state laser ICF system,” Proc. SPIE3492, 890–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing (1)

A. Wuttig, J. Steinert, A. Duparre, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Surface roughness and subsurface damage charaacterization of fused silica substrates,” in Proceedings Of The EUROPTO Conference on Topical Fabrication and Testing, Proc. SPIE3739, 369–376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. L. André, “Status of the LMJ project,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. André, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 38–42 (1996).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

contamination depth profile of Ce element detected on polished fused silica surfaces by TOF-SIMS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The fluorescence image and bright image of Sample E inspected by confocal fluorescence microscope. (a) Fluorescence image. (b) Bright image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity distribution of optical thermal absorption measured by photo-thermal common-path interferometer in scanning mode for Sample B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The incident pulse graph (a) and the beam distribution image at target (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Damage densities versus fluence of fused silica samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Damage densities of fused silica samples at 13.75J/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of Ce content on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of Fe content on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of Ca content on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effect of Al content on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Effect of Mg content on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effect of K content on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Effect of SSD on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Effect of surface absorption on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E, F are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Effect of surface hardness on damage threshold and damage density. The series A, B, C, D, E are for damage threshold, and the boxed series are for damage density.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Gray haze damage morphology: (a) tested by online microscopy, (b) tested by high power microscopy.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sample preparation methods

Tables Icon

Table 2 The amount of each element in the subsurface layer of fused silica samples

Tables Icon

Table 3 SSD area percentage of fused silica samples

Tables Icon

Table 4 Surface absorption maximum and hardness of fused silica samples

Tables Icon

Table 5 Damage threshold of fused silica samples

Tables Icon

Table 6 The spearman correlations between defects and damage threshold/damage density

Metrics