Abstract

Based on several nano-scale groove models, we propose a new technique to simultaneously determine the azimuthal and polar surface anchoring strengths of nematic liquid crystal (LC). The optical analysis of LCs on a grooved surface made by nanoimprinting lithography was performed on special alignment material, using a typical rubbing process. In our approach, using a polarizing microscope, we can determine the LC alignment exactly as it is in a parallel state, rather than a twisted state. This simple proposed method gives an accurate value of the surface LC anchoring of various surfaces, as well as simultaneously measuring the azimuthal and polar anchoring energy.

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  2. N. Kawatsuki, T. Yamamoto, and H. Ono, “Photoinduced alignment control of photoreactive side-chain polymer liquid crystal by linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(7), 935–937 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics57(5), 5644–5650 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Zhang, F. K. Lee, O. K. C. Tsui, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal orientation transition on microtextured substrates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(21), 215501 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. H. Yang, “Weak boundary storage effect in homogeneous liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 1), 389–393 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Becker, J. Nehring, and T. J. Scheffer, “Theory of twisted nematic layers with weak boundary,” J. Appl. Phys.57(10), 4539–4542 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Sugimura, G. R. Luckhurst, and O.-Y. Zhong-can, “Director deformation of a twisted chiral nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring boundaries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics52(1), 681–689 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. K. H. Yang and C. Rosenblatt, “Determination of the anisotropic potential at the nematic liquid crystal –to-wall interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(1), 62 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Rosenblatt, “Temperature dependence of the anchoring strength coefficient at a nematic liquid crystal-wall,” J. Phys. France45(6), 1087–1091 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Porte, “Tilted alignment of MBBA induced by short-chain surfactants,” J. Phys. France37(10), 1245–1252 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Determination of nematic polar anchoring from retardation versus voltage measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 202–204 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Iimura, N. Kobayashi, and S. Kobayashi, “A new method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1), L434–L436 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. S. Gwag, S. J. Kim, J. G. You, J. Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Surface-anchoring properties related to the distribution of polyimide chains in a twisted nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1387–1389 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. S. Gwag, J. Yi, and J. H. Kwon, “Determination of actual surface azimuthal anchoring strength using a wedge-shaped liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 456–458 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “The influence of surface reflectivities on measurement of the torsional anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 1), 3998–4007 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and the Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-Groove-Induced Azimuthal Anchoring of a Nematic Liquid Crystal: Berreman’s Model Reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 187803 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. I. Fukuda, J. S. Gwag, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Theory of anchoring on a two-dimensionally grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(1), 011702 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. S. Gwag, J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface nematic bistability at nanoimprinted topography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. S. Gwag, J. H. Kwon, M. Oh-e, J. Niitsuma, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Higher-order surface free energy in azimuthal nematic anchoring on nanopatterned grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(10), 103101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Cui and J. R. Kelly, “Temperature dependence of visco-elastic properties of 5CB,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331(1), 49–57 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Nehring and A. Saupe, “On the Elastic Theory of Uniaxial Liquid Crystals,” J. Chem. Phys.54(1), 337–343 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Faetti, “Azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal at a grooved interface,” Phys. Rev. A36(1), 408–410 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. S. Gwag, M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, H. Yokoyama, H. Satou, and S. Itami, “Advanced nanoimprint lithography using a graded functional imprinting material tailored for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 063501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

J. S. Gwag, J. H. Kwon, M. Oh-e, J. Niitsuma, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Higher-order surface free energy in azimuthal nematic anchoring on nanopatterned grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(10), 103101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. I. Fukuda, J. S. Gwag, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Theory of anchoring on a two-dimensionally grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(1), 011702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface nematic bistability at nanoimprinted topography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-Groove-Induced Azimuthal Anchoring of a Nematic Liquid Crystal: Berreman’s Model Reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 187803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, H. Yokoyama, H. Satou, and S. Itami, “Advanced nanoimprint lithography using a graded functional imprinting material tailored for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 063501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. Zhang, F. K. Lee, O. K. C. Tsui, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal orientation transition on microtextured substrates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(21), 215501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

N. Kawatsuki, T. Yamamoto, and H. Ono, “Photoinduced alignment control of photoreactive side-chain polymer liquid crystal by linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(7), 935–937 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Cui and J. R. Kelly, “Temperature dependence of visco-elastic properties of 5CB,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331(1), 49–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Determination of nematic polar anchoring from retardation versus voltage measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 202–204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “The influence of surface reflectivities on measurement of the torsional anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 1), 3998–4007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics57(5), 5644–5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Sugimura, G. R. Luckhurst, and O.-Y. Zhong-can, “Director deformation of a twisted chiral nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring boundaries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics52(1), 681–689 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Rüetschi, P. Grütter, J. Fünfschilling, and H.-J. Güntherodt, “Creation of Liquid Crystal Waveguides with Scanning Force Microscopy,” Science265, 512–514 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Iimura, N. Kobayashi, and S. Kobayashi, “A new method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1), L434–L436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Faetti, “Azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal at a grooved interface,” Phys. Rev. A36(1), 408–410 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

H. Yokoyama and H. A. van Sprang, “A novel method for determining the anchoring energy function at a nematic liquid crystal-wall interface from director distortions at high,” J. Appl. Phys. 1985, 57, 4520 (1985).

M. E. Becker, J. Nehring, and T. J. Scheffer, “Theory of twisted nematic layers with weak boundary,” J. Appl. Phys.57(10), 4539–4542 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. Rosenblatt, “Temperature dependence of the anchoring strength coefficient at a nematic liquid crystal-wall,” J. Phys. France45(6), 1087–1091 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. H. Yang and C. Rosenblatt, “Determination of the anisotropic potential at the nematic liquid crystal –to-wall interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(1), 62 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yang, “Weak boundary storage effect in homogeneous liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 1), 389–393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yang, “Freedericksz transition of twisted nematic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(2), 171–173 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. Porte, “Tilted alignment of MBBA induced by short-chain surfactants,” J. Phys. France37(10), 1245–1252 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(4), 173–174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and the Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. Nehring and A. Saupe, “On the Elastic Theory of Uniaxial Liquid Crystals,” J. Chem. Phys.54(1), 337–343 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, M. E.

M. E. Becker, J. Nehring, and T. J. Scheffer, “Theory of twisted nematic layers with weak boundary,” J. Appl. Phys.57(10), 4539–4542 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D.

D. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and the Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, P.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, M.

M. Cui and J. R. Kelly, “Temperature dependence of visco-elastic properties of 5CB,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331(1), 49–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faetti, S.

S. Faetti, “Azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal at a grooved interface,” Phys. Rev. A36(1), 408–410 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, J.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-Groove-Induced Azimuthal Anchoring of a Nematic Liquid Crystal: Berreman’s Model Reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 187803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, J. I.

J. I. Fukuda, J. S. Gwag, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Theory of anchoring on a two-dimensionally grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(1), 011702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fünfschilling, J.

M. Rüetschi, P. Grütter, J. Fünfschilling, and H.-J. Güntherodt, “Creation of Liquid Crystal Waveguides with Scanning Force Microscopy,” Science265, 512–514 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galligan, E.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grütter, P.

M. Rüetschi, P. Grütter, J. Fünfschilling, and H.-J. Güntherodt, “Creation of Liquid Crystal Waveguides with Scanning Force Microscopy,” Science265, 512–514 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

M. Rüetschi, P. Grütter, J. Fünfschilling, and H.-J. Güntherodt, “Creation of Liquid Crystal Waveguides with Scanning Force Microscopy,” Science265, 512–514 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwag, J. S.

J. S. Gwag, J. Yi, and J. H. Kwon, “Determination of actual surface azimuthal anchoring strength using a wedge-shaped liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 456–458 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. H. Kwon, M. Oh-e, J. Niitsuma, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Higher-order surface free energy in azimuthal nematic anchoring on nanopatterned grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(10), 103101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface nematic bistability at nanoimprinted topography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Fukuda, J. S. Gwag, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Theory of anchoring on a two-dimensionally grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(1), 011702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, H. Yokoyama, H. Satou, and S. Itami, “Advanced nanoimprint lithography using a graded functional imprinting material tailored for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 063501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, S. J. Kim, J. G. You, J. Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Surface-anchoring properties related to the distribution of polyimide chains in a twisted nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1387–1389 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hougham, G.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iimura, Y.

Y. Iimura, N. Kobayashi, and S. Kobayashi, “A new method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1), L434–L436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Itami, S.

J. S. Gwag, M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, H. Yokoyama, H. Satou, and S. Itami, “Advanced nanoimprint lithography using a graded functional imprinting material tailored for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 063501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(4), 173–174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawatsuki, N.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics showing LC alignment produced by anchoring competition driven from a groove pattern and mechanical rubbing having mutually orthogonal surface anchoring directions. By decreasing the pitch, the LC alignment moves toward the groove direction due to the dominance of the groove contribution over the rubbing-induced anchoring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plotting results of the azimuthal surface anchoring strength, WA, as a function of the stable orientations ϕ using Eq. (8).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plotting results of the azimuthal surface anchoring strength WA as a function of the stable orientations ϕ using Eq. (9) with Eq. (10). (a) According to changes in polar anchoring strength WP. (b) According to change in groove pitch λ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM images of the nano-sized groove used in this experiment. The four pitches (200, 400, 800, and 1600 nm) were patterned continuously in order, and the features were transferred by NIL from a mold pattern into a hybrid-type polyimide film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarizing microscopic images of LC alignments in the LC cell filled with 5CB LC on the rubbed surfaces with 200, 400, and 800 nm pitch grooves. (a) For hybrid-type polyimide film used as an LC alignment layer. (b) For PMMA film used as an LC alignment layer.

Equations (10)

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z=Asin[q(xcosϕysinϕ)].
F= 1 2 [ K 1 ( n ) 2 + K 2 ( n × n ) 2 + K 3 ( n ×× n ) 2 ( K 2 + K 24 )( n n + n ×× n )]dr.
f= 1 2 W G [ sin 4 ϕ g 1 (ϕ) + ( K 2 + K 24 ) K 3 sin 2 ϕ cos 2 ϕ g 1 (ϕ) (2 ( K 2 + K 24 ) K 3 g 1 (ϕ) g 2 (ϕ) cos 2 ϕ sin 2 ϕ )],
f= 1 2 W G sin 2 ϕ.
f= 1 2 W G sin 2 ϕ 1 2 W A sin 2 ϕ,
df dϕ =sinϕcosϕ( W G W A )=0.
f= 1 2 W G [ sin 4 ϕ g 1 (ϕ) + ( K 2 + K 24 ) K 3 sin 2 ϕ cos 2 ϕ g 1 (ϕ) (2 ( K 2 + K 24 ) K 3 g 1 (ϕ) g 2 (ϕ) cos 2 ϕ sin 2 ϕ )] + 1 2 W A cos 2 ϕ.
W A = W G ( 1 2 g 1 3 (1 β 1 )( β 3 2 cos 4 ϕ+ sin 4 ϕ)+ (22 β 3 ) sin 2 ϕ g 1 + β 3 2 g 2 + β 3 cos 2 ϕ×( 2 g 1 + β 3 ( 2 g 1 + 1 2 g 2 (1 β 2 )))+ β 3 sin 2 2ϕ 4 g 1 3 (1 β 1 )),
W A = W G 2 cos 2 ϕ { 1 2 g 1 3 (1 β 1 )( β 3 2 cos 4 ϕ+ sin 4 ϕ)+ (22 β 3 ) sin 2 ϕ g 1 + β 3 2 g 2 + β 3 cos 2 ϕ×[ 2 g 1 + β 3 ( 2 g 1 + 1 2 g 2 (1 β 2 )) ]+ β 3 sin 2 2ϕ 4 g 1 3 (1 β 1 ) }.
W G ( W P )= 1 2 K 3 A 2 q 3 ( 1+ q K 3 2 W P ) 1 .

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