Abstract

We report on core-pumped single-stage and two-stage polarization-maintaining single-frequency Raman fiber amplifiers (RFAs). For a counter-pumped single-stage RFA, commercial-off-the shelf (COTS) single-mode fiber was utilized to generate 10 W of output power at 1178 nm through the application of a two-step thermal gradient in order to suppress SBS. The relatively high output can be explained by the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) of the COTS fiber. A pump-probe characterization of the BGS of the fiber provided a Brillouin gain coefficient of 1.2 × 10−11 m/W with a FWHM of 78 MHz for the gain bandwidth. A fiber cutback study was also conducted to investigate the signal output at SBS threshold as a function of pump power for optimal length. This study revealed a linear dependence, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations indicating that substantial power scaling can be achieved by seeding at a higher power. Consequently, we constructed a two-stage RFA in order to achieve seed powers at the 1 W level. By utilizing an acoustically tailored fiber possessing a lower Brillouin gain coefficient than the COTS fiber and by seeding at higher powers, 22 W of single-frequency 1178 nm output was obtained from a counter-pumped two-stage RFA. Finally, we show that the single-frequency spectral bandwidth could not be maintained when a similar co-pumped two-stage RFA was utilized.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012

2010

2009

2008

2007

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Feng, S. Huang, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Multiple-color cw visible lasers by frequency sum-mixing in a cascading Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express12(9), 1843–1847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1990

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccini Calia, D.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broeng, J.

Calia, D. B.

Chen, M.

Chowdhury, D.

Christou, J.

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dajani, I.

Denman, C.

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. D.

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Farinotti, S.

Feng, Y.

Gilmozzi, R.

A. McPherson, R. Gilmozzi, J. Spyromilio, M. Kissler-Patig, and S. Ramsay, “Recent progress towards the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger148, 2–8 (2012).

Hickey, L. M. B.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, P.

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horley, R.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Huang, S.

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kissler-Patig, M.

A. McPherson, R. Gilmozzi, J. Spyromilio, M. Kissler-Patig, and S. Ramsay, “Recent progress towards the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger148, 2–8 (2012).

Kobyakov, A.

Lyngsø, J. K.

McPherson, A.

A. McPherson, R. Gilmozzi, J. Spyromilio, M. Kissler-Patig, and S. Ramsay, “Recent progress towards the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger148, 2–8 (2012).

Mermelstein, M. D.

Narum, P.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, J.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olausson, C. B.

Payne, D. N.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pique, J. P.

Ramsay, S.

A. McPherson, R. Gilmozzi, J. Spyromilio, M. Kissler-Patig, and S. Ramsay, “Recent progress towards the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger148, 2–8 (2012).

Robin, C.

Rzaewski, K.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahu, J. K.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

Shirakawa, A.

Spinhirne, J.

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

A. McPherson, R. Gilmozzi, J. Spyromilio, M. Kissler-Patig, and S. Ramsay, “Recent progress towards the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger148, 2–8 (2012).

Taylor, L. R.

Telle, J. M.

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P. W.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Vergien, C.

Wang, J.

Zeringue, C.

Zhang, L.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power scaling of single frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

J. D. Drummond, J. M. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, “Sky tests of a laser-pumped sodium guidestar with and without beam compensation,” Proc. SPIE5490, 12–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

The Messenger

A. McPherson, R. Gilmozzi, J. Spyromilio, M. Kissler-Patig, and S. Ramsay, “Recent progress towards the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger148, 2–8 (2012).

Other

K. Tankala, Nufern, 7 Airport Park Rd, East Granby, CT, 06026 (personal communication, 2010).

A. Wada, T. Nozawa, D. Tanaka, and R. Yamauchi, “Suppression of SBS by intentionally induced periodic residual-strain in single-mode optical fibers,” in Proc. of 17th ECOC, paper B1.1 (1991).

Y. Feng, L. R. Taylor, D. Bonaccini Calia, R. Holzlöhner, and W. Hackenberg, “39 W narrow linewidth Raman fiber amplifier with frequency doubling to 26.5 W at 589 nm,” presented at Frontiers in Optics, San Diego, postdeadline paper PDPA4 (2009).

C. Headley and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Elsevier Academic Press, 2005).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the pump-probe technique to measure the Brillouin gain bandwidth. ISO 1 and ISO 2 are optical isolators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental data of the Brillouin gain spectrum in the PM980-XP fiber obtained by conducting a pump-probe experiment. The peak gain occurs at a Brillouin shift of approximately 15.9 GHz and the bandwidth is 78 MHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental data and the numerical fit corresponding to the pump-probe study of the Brillouin gain in the PM980-XP fiber. The fit yielded a value for the Brillouin gain coefficient of 1.2 × 10−11 m/W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of the counter-pumped single-stage RFA. The WDMs were used to combine/separate the different wavelengths. The TAP was used to monitor the forward and backward traveling light and the amplifier output was angle polished.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral content of the IPG 1120 nm output at 50% and 90% of total output power indicating relative rise in 1178 nm light as the output power is increased. The 1178 nm light is due to the second-order Stokes shift within the oscillator of the pump laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

1178 nm signal and backward power vs. 1120 nm pump power for the Nufern PM980-XP fiber for the cases of a two-step and uniform temperature profiles. The application of thermal gradients led to 2.6x the output power of the uniform temperature case.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stokes light spectrum as captured by a Fabry-Perot interferometer for two different reflectivities. Due to gain narrowing, the bandwidth is much smaller than the spontaneous Brillouin gain bandwidth. The plot in green is the captured spectrum below SBS threshold at an output power of ~3 W, while that in blue was obtained at ~3.8 W.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral linewidth of the 1178 nm light at 10 W output showing it to be within the resolution limit of the interferometer. No spectral broadening was observed for a counter-pumped RFA.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized signal power vs. normalized pump power at SBS threshold for counter-pumped RFA. The fiber lengths used in the studied were varied from a length of 55 m to 80 m in increments of 5 m. The data indicates a linear dependence.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulation results of output power at SBS threshold vs. seed power for the acoustically tailored fiber described in [8]. Also, shown is the corresponding optimal fiber length.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental setup of two-stage counter-pumped RFA. The first stage and second stage are comprised of acoustically tailored fiber. A 3 W isolator (ISO) is inserted between the amplifier stages to protect against backward travelling light.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

1178 nm output power vs. 1120 nm pump power for several seed powers. The length of the RFA was ~25 m. For seed powers of 100 mW and 500 mW, the output is pump limited; however, the output for 900 mW and 1200 mW was SBS limited.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental setup of co-pumped second stage RFA. It is seeded through a counter-pumped RFA. Both stages are comprised of acoustically tailored fiber. A 3 W isolator (ISO) is inserted between the amplifier stages to protect against backward travelling light.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Spectral content near 1178 nm as captured on a high-resolution optical spectrum analyzer indicating spectral broadening as the pump power was increased in a co-pumped second stage RFA.

Equations (4)

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0 L 1 e g R P p z/ A eff dz= 1 N1 L 1 L e g R P p z/ A eff dz,
L 1 L 2 e g R P p z/ A eff dz= 1 N2 L 2 L e g R P p z/ A eff dz,
L 2 L 3 e g R P p z/ A eff dz= 1 N3 L 3 L e g R P p z/ A eff dz,
L N2 L N1 e g R P p z/ A eff dz= L N1 L N e g R P p z/ A eff dz.

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