Abstract

The α-phase Bi2O3 (α-Bi2O3) is a crucial and potential visible-light photocatalyst material needless of intentional doping on accommodating band gap. The understanding on fundamental optical property of α-Bi2O3 is important for its extended applications. In this study, bismuth oxide nanowires with diameters from tens to hundreds nm have been grown by vapor transport method driven with vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on Si substrate. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman measurement confirm α phase of monoclinic structure for the as-grown nanowires. The axial direction for the as-grown nanowires was along <1¯22>. The band-edge structure of α-Bi2O3 has been probed experimentally by thermoreflectance (TR) spectroscopy. The direct band gap was determined accurately to be 2.91 eV at 300 K. Temperature-dependent TR measurements of 30-300 K were carried out to evaluate temperature-energy shift and line-width broadening effect for the band edge of α-Bi2O3 thin-film nanowires. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments at 30 and 300 K were carried out to identify band-edge emission as well as defect luminescence for the α-Bi2O3 nanowires. On the basis of experimental analyses of TR and PL, optical characteristics of direct band edge of α-Bi2O3 nanowires have thus been realized.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. H. Ho, C. H. Chan, L. C. Tien, and Y. S. Huang, “Direct optical observation of band edge excitons, band gap, and Fermi level in degenerate semiconducting oxide nanowires In2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(50), 25088–25096 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, “Enhanced photoelectric-conversion yield in niobium-incorporated In2S3 with intermediate band,” J. Mater. Chem.21(28), 10518–10524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, C. Y. Tseng, and L. C. Tien, “Thermoreflectance characterization of β-Ga2O3 thin-film nanostrips,” Opt. Express18(16), 16360–16369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hameed, T. Montini, V. Gombac, and P. Fornasiero, “Surface phases and photocatalytic activity correlation of Bi2O3/Bi2O4-x nanocomposite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(30), 9658–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Drache, P. Roussel, and J.-P. Wignacourt, “Structures and oxide mobility in Bi-Ln-O materials: heritage of Bi2O3.,” Chem. Rev.107(1), 80–96 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mehring, “From molecules to bismuth oxide-based materials: Potential homo- and heterometallic precursors and model compounds,” Coord. Chem. Rev.251(7-8), 974–1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. W. Kim, J. H. Myung, S. H. Shim, and C. Lee, “Growth of Bi2O3 rods using a trimethylbismuth and oxygen mixture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. H. Ho, P. C. Liao, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Temperature dependence of energies and broadening parameters of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B55(23), 15608–15613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Denisov, A. N. Ivlev, A. S. Lipin, B. N. Mavrin, and V. G. Orlov, “Raman spectra and lattice dynamics of single-crystal α-Bi2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(23), 4967–4978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, “Modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surfaces/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng.R10, 275–374 (1993).

1987

P. Lautenschlager, M. Garriga, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(17), 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amutha, R.

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beaunier, P.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

P. Lautenschlager, M. Garriga, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(17), 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. H.

C. H. Ho, C. H. Chan, L. C. Tien, and Y. S. Huang, “Direct optical observation of band edge excitons, band gap, and Fermi level in degenerate semiconducting oxide nanowires In2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(50), 25088–25096 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chanéac, C.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chemin, N.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choo, J.

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denisov, V. N.

V. N. Denisov, A. N. Ivlev, A. S. Lipin, B. N. Mavrin, and V. G. Orlov, “Raman spectra and lattice dynamics of single-crystal α-Bi2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(23), 4967–4978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z. L.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drache, M.

M. Drache, P. Roussel, and J.-P. Wignacourt, “Structures and oxide mobility in Bi-Ln-O materials: heritage of Bi2O3.,” Chem. Rev.107(1), 80–96 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durupthy, O.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, P.

A. Hameed, T. Montini, V. Gombac, and P. Fornasiero, “Surface phases and photocatalytic activity correlation of Bi2O3/Bi2O4-x nanocomposite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(30), 9658–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garriga, M.

P. Lautenschlager, M. Garriga, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(17), 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gombac, V.

A. Hameed, T. Montini, V. Gombac, and P. Fornasiero, “Surface phases and photocatalytic activity correlation of Bi2O3/Bi2O4-x nanocomposite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(30), 9658–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hameed, A.

A. Hameed, T. Montini, V. Gombac, and P. Fornasiero, “Surface phases and photocatalytic activity correlation of Bi2O3/Bi2O4-x nanocomposite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(30), 9658–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, J.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. H.

C. H. Ho, C. H. Chan, L. C. Tien, and Y. S. Huang, “Direct optical observation of band edge excitons, band gap, and Fermi level in degenerate semiconducting oxide nanowires In2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(50), 25088–25096 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, “Enhanced photoelectric-conversion yield in niobium-incorporated In2S3 with intermediate band,” J. Mater. Chem.21(28), 10518–10524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, C. Y. Tseng, and L. C. Tien, “Thermoreflectance characterization of β-Ga2O3 thin-film nanostrips,” Opt. Express18(16), 16360–16369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, P. C. Liao, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Temperature dependence of energies and broadening parameters of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B55(23), 15608–15613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, S.-H.

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. S.

C. H. Ho, C. H. Chan, L. C. Tien, and Y. S. Huang, “Direct optical observation of band edge excitons, band gap, and Fermi level in degenerate semiconducting oxide nanowires In2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(50), 25088–25096 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, P. C. Liao, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Temperature dependence of energies and broadening parameters of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B55(23), 15608–15613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

In, J.

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivlev, A. N.

V. N. Denisov, A. N. Ivlev, A. S. Lipin, B. N. Mavrin, and V. G. Orlov, “Raman spectra and lattice dynamics of single-crystal α-Bi2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(23), 4967–4978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jolivet, J.-P.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. W.

H. W. Kim, J. H. Myung, S. H. Shim, and C. Lee, “Growth of Bi2O3 rods using a trimethylbismuth and oxygen mixture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminarayana, G.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lautenschlager, P.

P. Lautenschlager, M. Garriga, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(17), 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

H. W. Kim, J. H. Myung, S. H. Shim, and C. Lee, “Growth of Bi2O3 rods using a trimethylbismuth and oxygen mixture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-J.

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. F.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, P. C.

C. H. Ho, P. C. Liao, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Temperature dependence of energies and broadening parameters of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B55(23), 15608–15613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ling, B.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipin, A. S.

V. N. Denisov, A. N. Ivlev, A. S. Lipin, B. N. Mavrin, and V. G. Orlov, “Raman spectra and lattice dynamics of single-crystal α-Bi2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(23), 4967–4978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Logothetidis, S.

P. Lautenschlager, M. Garriga, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(17), 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariey, L.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mauge, F.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mavrin, B. N.

V. N. Denisov, A. N. Ivlev, A. S. Lipin, B. N. Mavrin, and V. G. Orlov, “Raman spectra and lattice dynamics of single-crystal α-Bi2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(23), 4967–4978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mehring, M.

M. Mehring, “From molecules to bismuth oxide-based materials: Potential homo- and heterometallic precursors and model compounds,” Coord. Chem. Rev.251(7-8), 974–1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montini, T.

A. Hameed, T. Montini, V. Gombac, and P. Fornasiero, “Surface phases and photocatalytic activity correlation of Bi2O3/Bi2O4-x nanocomposite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(30), 9658–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muruganandham, M.

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Myung, J. H.

H. W. Kim, J. H. Myung, S. H. Shim, and C. Lee, “Growth of Bi2O3 rods using a trimethylbismuth and oxygen mixture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, V. G.

V. N. Denisov, A. N. Ivlev, A. S. Lipin, B. N. Mavrin, and V. G. Orlov, “Raman spectra and lattice dynamics of single-crystal α-Bi2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(23), 4967–4978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollak, F. H.

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, “Modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surfaces/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng.R10, 275–374 (1993).

Qin, X.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roussel, P.

M. Drache, P. Roussel, and J.-P. Wignacourt, “Structures and oxide mobility in Bi-Ln-O materials: heritage of Bi2O3.,” Chem. Rev.107(1), 80–96 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruaux, V.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saison, T.

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, Y.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, “Modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surfaces/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng.R10, 275–374 (1993).

Shen, Y. Q.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, S. H.

H. W. Kim, J. H. Myung, S. H. Shim, and C. Lee, “Growth of Bi2O3 rods using a trimethylbismuth and oxygen mixture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sillanpää, M.

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L. D.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, L. C.

C. H. Ho, C. H. Chan, L. C. Tien, and Y. S. Huang, “Direct optical observation of band edge excitons, band gap, and Fermi level in degenerate semiconducting oxide nanowires In2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(50), 25088–25096 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, C. Y. Tseng, and L. C. Tien, “Thermoreflectance characterization of β-Ga2O3 thin-film nanostrips,” Opt. Express18(16), 16360–16369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiong, K. K.

C. H. Ho, P. C. Liao, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Temperature dependence of energies and broadening parameters of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B55(23), 15608–15613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. C.

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C. Y.

Wang, Z.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wignacourt, J.-P.

M. Drache, P. Roussel, and J.-P. Wignacourt, “Structures and oxide mobility in Bi-Ln-O materials: heritage of Bi2O3.,” Chem. Rev.107(1), 80–96 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, M. S.

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. J.

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, I.

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. L.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, Y.

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glasses: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultrabroadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

H. W. Kim, J. H. Myung, S. H. Shim, and C. Lee, “Growth of Bi2O3 rods using a trimethylbismuth and oxygen mixture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.84(1-2), 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

M. Drache, P. Roussel, and J.-P. Wignacourt, “Structures and oxide mobility in Bi-Ln-O materials: heritage of Bi2O3.,” Chem. Rev.107(1), 80–96 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemistry

J. In, I. Yoon, K. Seo, J. Park, J. Choo, Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy,” Chemistry17(4), 1304–1309 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coord. Chem. Rev.

M. Mehring, “From molecules to bismuth oxide-based materials: Potential homo- and heterometallic precursors and model compounds,” Coord. Chem. Rev.251(7-8), 974–1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

CrystEngComm

Y. Qiu, M. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Zuo, Y. Shao, Y. Xu, X. Yang, and S. Yang, “Nanowires of α- and β-Bi2O3: phase-selective synthesis and application in photo catalysis,” CrystEngComm13(6), 1843–1850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. Hameed, T. Montini, V. Gombac, and P. Fornasiero, “Surface phases and photocatalytic activity correlation of Bi2O3/Bi2O4-x nanocomposite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(30), 9658–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem.

C. H. Ho, “Enhanced photoelectric-conversion yield in niobium-incorporated In2S3 with intermediate band,” J. Mater. Chem.21(28), 10518–10524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.

B. Ling, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, Y. Q. Shen, Z. L. Dong, L. D. Sun, S. F. Li, and S. Zhang, “One-dimensional single-crystalline bismuth oxide micro/nanoribbons: morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescent properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.10(12), 8322–8327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. H. Ho, C. H. Chan, L. C. Tien, and Y. S. Huang, “Direct optical observation of band edge excitons, band gap, and Fermi level in degenerate semiconducting oxide nanowires In2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(50), 25088–25096 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Muruganandham, R. Amutha, G.-J. Lee, S.-H. Hsieh, J. J. Wu, and M. Sillanpää, “Facile fabrication of tunable Bi2O3 self-assembly and its visible light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(23), 12906–12915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, V. Ruaux, L. Mariey, F. Mauge, P. Beaunier, and J.-P. Jolivet, “Bi2O3, BiVO4, and Bi2WO6: impact of surface properties on photocatalytic activity under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(13), 5657–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

V. N. Denisov, A. N. Ivlev, A. S. Lipin, B. N. Mavrin, and V. G. Orlov, “Raman spectra and lattice dynamics of single-crystal α-Bi2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter9(23), 4967–4978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng.

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, “Modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surfaces/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng.R10, 275–374 (1993).

Opt. Express

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

H. Cheng, B. Huang, J. Lu, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Synergistic effect of crystal and electronic structures on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances of Bi2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(47), 15468–15475 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

C. H. Ho, P. C. Liao, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Temperature dependence of energies and broadening parameters of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B55(23), 15608–15613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

P. Lautenschlager, M. Garriga, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(17), 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. E. Aspnes, in Handbook on Semiconductors, edited by M. Balkanski, (North Holland, 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) top view and (b) cross-section view for as-grown α-Bi2O3 nanowires on Si substrate. (c) TEM image of a single nanowire with diameter of ~298 nm, the corresponding EDS spectrum and the content data are shown in (d). (e) High-resolution TEM image of the α-Bi2O3 nanowire, the interplannar distance of d(001) is indicated. (f) The related SAED pattern of the α-Bi2O3 nanowire with zone axis along [210].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman peak pattern of α-Bi2O3 thin-film nanowires with the vibration frequencies between 100 and 700 cm−1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Temperature-dependent TR spectra of α-Bi2O3 nanowires between 300 and 30 K near band edge. (b) Temperature dependence of direct band gaps of α-Bi2O3 from 30 to 300 K. (c) Temperature-dependent broadening parameter of the TR feature for the direct band gap derived from spectral analysis in (a). The solid line is fitted to a Bose-Einstein expression containing electron-phonon interaction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The PL and TR spectra of α-Bi2O3 nanowires at 300 and 30 K. The inset depicts a representative band-edge scheme of α-Bi2O3 nanowire derived from the experimental analysis of TR and PL results.

Equations (1)

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ΔR R =Re[ A e jφ (E E g +jΓ) 0.5 ]

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