Abstract

We describe the monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, optical waveguides, a collimating lens and a curved focusing transmission grating in a single PDMS-based microsystem. All optical and fluidic components of the device were simultaneously formed in a single layer of high refractive index (n~1.43) PDMS by soft lithography. Outer layers of lower-index (n~1.41) PDMS were subsequently added to provide optical and fluidic confinement. Here, we focus on the design and characterization of the microspectrometer part, which employs a novel self-focusing strategy based on cylindrical facets, and exhibits resolution <10 nm in the visible wavelength range. The dispersive behavior of the grating was analyzed both experimentally and using numerical simulations, and the results are in good agreement with simplified analytical predictions.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. C. Jakeway, A. J. de Mello, and E. L. Russell, “Miniaturized total analysis systems for biological analysis,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.366(6-7), 525–539 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Traut and H. P. Herzig, “Holographically recorded gratings on microlenses for a miniaturized spectrometer array,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 290–298 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM based on confocal ellipses,” Opt. Commun.237(1–3), 71–77 (2004).
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  21. X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Integrated diffraction grating for lab-on-a-chip microspectrometers,” Proc. SPIE5699, 511–516 (2005).
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2013 (1)

2012 (1)

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

C. M. Klapperich, “Microfluidic diagnostics: time for industry standards,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices6(3), 211–213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Domachuk, H. Perry, M. Cronin-Golomb, and F. G. Omenetto, “Towards an integrated optofluidic diffractive spectrometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(24), 1976–1978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Grabarnik, R. Wolffenbuttel, A. Emadi, M. Loktev, E. Sokolova, and G. Vdovin, “Planar double-grating microspectrometer,” Opt. Express15(6), 3581–3588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Integrated diffraction grating for lab-on-a-chip microspectrometers,” Proc. SPIE5699, 511–516 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM based on confocal ellipses,” Opt. Commun.237(1–3), 71–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Bacon, Y. Mattley, and R. DeFrece, “Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: applications to biology and chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(1), 1–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “State-of-the-art in integrated optical microspectrometers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 197–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. L. Adams, M. Enzelberger, S. Quake, and A. Scherer, “Microfluidic integration on detector arrays, for absorption and fluorescence micro-spectrometers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.104(1), 25–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for biological studies,” Electrophoresis24(21), 3563–3576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Camou, H. Fujita, and T. Fujii, “PDMS 2D optical lens integrated with microfluidic channels: principle and characterization,” Lab Chip3(1), 40–45 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

D. Sander and J. Müller, “Selffocussing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.88(1), 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Traut and H. P. Herzig, “Holographically recorded gratings on microlenses for a miniaturized spectrometer array,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 290–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jakeway, A. J. de Mello, and E. L. Russell, “Miniaturized total analysis systems for biological analysis,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.366(6-7), 525–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. M. Yee, N. I. Maluf, P. A. Hing, M. Albin, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “Miniature spectrometers for biochemical analysis,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.58(1), 61–66 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

Adams, M. L.

M. L. Adams, M. Enzelberger, S. Quake, and A. Scherer, “Microfluidic integration on detector arrays, for absorption and fluorescence micro-spectrometers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.104(1), 25–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Albin, M.

G. M. Yee, N. I. Maluf, P. A. Hing, M. Albin, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “Miniature spectrometers for biochemical analysis,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.58(1), 61–66 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

Azmayesh-Fard, S. M.

Bacon, C. P.

C. P. Bacon, Y. Mattley, and R. DeFrece, “Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: applications to biology and chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(1), 1–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Camou, S.

S. Camou, H. Fujita, and T. Fujii, “PDMS 2D optical lens integrated with microfluidic channels: principle and characterization,” Lab Chip3(1), 40–45 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Integrated diffraction grating for lab-on-a-chip microspectrometers,” Proc. SPIE5699, 511–516 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM based on confocal ellipses,” Opt. Commun.237(1–3), 71–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cooper, J.

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

P. Domachuk, H. Perry, M. Cronin-Golomb, and F. G. Omenetto, “Towards an integrated optofluidic diffractive spectrometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(24), 1976–1978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Mello, A. J.

S. C. Jakeway, A. J. de Mello, and E. L. Russell, “Miniaturized total analysis systems for biological analysis,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.366(6-7), 525–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeCorby, R. G.

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Integrated diffraction grating for lab-on-a-chip microspectrometers,” Proc. SPIE5699, 511–516 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM based on confocal ellipses,” Opt. Commun.237(1–3), 71–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. N. McMullin, R. G. DeCorby, and C. J. Haugen, “Theory and simulation of a concave diffraction grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 758–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeFrece, R.

C. P. Bacon, Y. Mattley, and R. DeFrece, “Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: applications to biology and chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(1), 1–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

P. Domachuk, H. Perry, M. Cronin-Golomb, and F. G. Omenetto, “Towards an integrated optofluidic diffractive spectrometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(24), 1976–1978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P.

Emadi, A.

Enzelberger, M.

M. L. Adams, M. Enzelberger, S. Quake, and A. Scherer, “Microfluidic integration on detector arrays, for absorption and fluorescence micro-spectrometers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.104(1), 25–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaim, E.

S. M. Azmayesh-Fard, E. Flaim, and J. N. McMullin, “PDMS biochips with integrated waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(8), 087002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

S. Camou, H. Fujita, and T. Fujii, “PDMS 2D optical lens integrated with microfluidic channels: principle and characterization,” Lab Chip3(1), 40–45 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, H.

S. Camou, H. Fujita, and T. Fujii, “PDMS 2D optical lens integrated with microfluidic channels: principle and characterization,” Lab Chip3(1), 40–45 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glidle, A.

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, D. S.

Grabarnik, S.

Haugen, C. J.

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Integrated diffraction grating for lab-on-a-chip microspectrometers,” Proc. SPIE5699, 511–516 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM based on confocal ellipses,” Opt. Commun.237(1–3), 71–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. N. McMullin, R. G. DeCorby, and C. J. Haugen, “Theory and simulation of a concave diffraction grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 758–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

S. Traut and H. P. Herzig, “Holographically recorded gratings on microlenses for a miniaturized spectrometer array,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 290–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hing, P. A.

G. M. Yee, N. I. Maluf, P. A. Hing, M. Albin, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “Miniature spectrometers for biochemical analysis,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.58(1), 61–66 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ironside, C. N.

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakeway, S. C.

S. C. Jakeway, A. J. de Mello, and E. L. Russell, “Miniaturized total analysis systems for biological analysis,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.366(6-7), 525–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kee, J. S.

Klapperich, C. M.

C. M. Klapperich, “Microfluidic diagnostics: time for industry standards,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices6(3), 211–213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacs, G. T. A.

G. M. Yee, N. I. Maluf, P. A. Hing, M. Albin, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “Miniature spectrometers for biochemical analysis,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.58(1), 61–66 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Loktev, M.

Lytle, F. E.

Maluf, N. I.

G. M. Yee, N. I. Maluf, P. A. Hing, M. Albin, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “Miniature spectrometers for biochemical analysis,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.58(1), 61–66 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mattley, Y.

C. P. Bacon, Y. Mattley, and R. DeFrece, “Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: applications to biology and chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(1), 1–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

S. M. Azmayesh-Fard, E. Flaim, and J. N. McMullin, “PDMS biochips with integrated waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(8), 087002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Integrated diffraction grating for lab-on-a-chip microspectrometers,” Proc. SPIE5699, 511–516 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM based on confocal ellipses,” Opt. Commun.237(1–3), 71–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. N. McMullin, R. G. DeCorby, and C. J. Haugen, “Theory and simulation of a concave diffraction grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 758–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

D. Sander and J. Müller, “Selffocussing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.88(1), 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neužil, P.

Omenetto, F. G.

P. Domachuk, H. Perry, M. Cronin-Golomb, and F. G. Omenetto, “Towards an integrated optofluidic diffractive spectrometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(24), 1976–1978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perry, H.

P. Domachuk, H. Perry, M. Cronin-Golomb, and F. G. Omenetto, “Towards an integrated optofluidic diffractive spectrometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(24), 1976–1978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poenar, D. P.

Quake, S.

M. L. Adams, M. Enzelberger, S. Quake, and A. Scherer, “Microfluidic integration on detector arrays, for absorption and fluorescence micro-spectrometers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.104(1), 25–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, E. L.

S. C. Jakeway, A. J. de Mello, and E. L. Russell, “Miniaturized total analysis systems for biological analysis,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.366(6-7), 525–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, D.

D. Sander and J. Müller, “Selffocussing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.88(1), 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. L. Adams, M. Enzelberger, S. Quake, and A. Scherer, “Microfluidic integration on detector arrays, for absorption and fluorescence micro-spectrometers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.104(1), 25–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, K.

Sia, S. K.

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for biological studies,” Electrophoresis24(21), 3563–3576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolova, E.

Sorel, M.

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Splawn, B. G.

Strain, M. J.

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Totzeck, M.

Traut, S.

S. Traut and H. P. Herzig, “Holographically recorded gratings on microlenses for a miniaturized spectrometer array,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 290–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

White, P. L.

Whitesides, G. M.

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for biological studies,” Electrophoresis24(21), 3563–3576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolffenbuttel, R.

Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “State-of-the-art in integrated optical microspectrometers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 197–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yee, G. M.

G. M. Yee, N. I. Maluf, P. A. Hing, M. Albin, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “Miniature spectrometers for biochemical analysis,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.58(1), 61–66 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yin, H.

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yobas, L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electrophoresis (1)

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for biological studies,” Electrophoresis24(21), 3563–3576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

C. M. Klapperich, “Microfluidic diagnostics: time for industry standards,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices6(3), 211–213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

S. C. Jakeway, A. J. de Mello, and E. L. Russell, “Miniaturized total analysis systems for biological analysis,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.366(6-7), 525–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Domachuk, H. Perry, M. Cronin-Golomb, and F. G. Omenetto, “Towards an integrated optofluidic diffractive spectrometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(24), 1976–1978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “State-of-the-art in integrated optical microspectrometers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 197–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. M. Azmayesh-Fard, E. Flaim, and J. N. McMullin, “PDMS biochips with integrated waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(8), 087002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Lab Chip (2)

Z. Hu, A. Glidle, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, J. Cooper, and H. Yin, “Integrated microspectrometer for fluorescence based analysis in a microfluidic format,” Lab Chip12(16), 2850–2857 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Camou, H. Fujita, and T. Fujii, “PDMS 2D optical lens integrated with microfluidic channels: principle and characterization,” Lab Chip3(1), 40–45 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM based on confocal ellipses,” Opt. Commun.237(1–3), 71–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Traut and H. P. Herzig, “Holographically recorded gratings on microlenses for a miniaturized spectrometer array,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 290–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Chen, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, and R. G. DeCorby, “Integrated diffraction grating for lab-on-a-chip microspectrometers,” Proc. SPIE5699, 511–516 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. P. Bacon, Y. Mattley, and R. DeFrece, “Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: applications to biology and chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(1), 1–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (3)

G. M. Yee, N. I. Maluf, P. A. Hing, M. Albin, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “Miniature spectrometers for biochemical analysis,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.58(1), 61–66 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Adams, M. Enzelberger, S. Quake, and A. Scherer, “Microfluidic integration on detector arrays, for absorption and fluorescence micro-spectrometers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.104(1), 25–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Sander and J. Müller, “Selffocussing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.88(1), 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984), Ch. 4.

A. Sommerfeld, Optics, Volume III of Lectures on Theoretical Physics, translated from German (Academic Press, 1964).

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