Abstract

We experimentally and theoretically clarified that a Fano resonant system based on a coupled optical cavity has better performance when used as an all-optical switch than a single cavity in terms of switching energy, contrast, and operation bandwidth. We successfully fabricated a Fano system consisting of doubly coupled photonic-crystal (PhC) nanocavities, and demonstrated all-optical switching for the first time. A steep asymmetric transmission spectrum was clearly observed, thereby enabling a low-energy and high-contrast switching operation. We achieved the switching with a pump energy of a few fJ, a contrast of more than 10 dB, and an 18 ps switching time window. These levels of performance are actually better than those for Lorentzian resonance in a single cavity. We also theoretically investigated the achievable performance in a well-designed Fano system, which suggested a high contrast for the switching of more than 20 dB in a fJ energy regime.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1396–1403 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. S. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1396–1403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

Y. Lu, J. Q. Yao, X. F. Li, and P. Wang, “Tunable asymmetrical Fano resonance and bistability in a microcavity-resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett.30(22), 3069–3071 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

S. H. Fan, “Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 908–910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Al Amin, A.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Chin, M. K.

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Combrie, S.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Darmawan, S.

De Rossi, A.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delalamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

S. H. Fan, “Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 908–910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Q. H.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Husko, C.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inokawa, H.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

Jiang, X. F.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. B.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

Li, Y.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. S.

Liu, Y. C.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mario, L. Y.

Matsuo, S.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

Nishiguchi, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1396–1403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

Papasimakis, N.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

Raineri, F.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Sato, T.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, T.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, M.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sumikura, H.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. W.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, M.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1396–1403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, T.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1396–1403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tran, Q. V.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y. F.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. Q.

Yu, M. B.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, C. L.

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Fan, “Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 908–910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/V silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Li, Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, X. F. Jiang, Y. C. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Experimental controlling of Fano resonance in indirectly coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “InP-InGaAsP integrated 1x5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 1063–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IET Circ. Device Syst.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and H. Sumikura, “Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip,” IET Circ. Device Syst.5(2), 84–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1396–1403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure and transmission spectrum. (a) SEM image of fabricated Fano system consisting of H0 nanocavities. (b) Schematic of optical interference between two paths. Light passes through both cavity 1 and 2 for path A, while it only passes through cavity 1 for path B. (c) Experimental transmission spectrum. (d) Transmission spectrum simulated by 3-D FDTD method. The spectrum at the top is for only H0 cavity 1. The following spectra are for a Fano system with different H0 cavity 2 resonances. To create these spectra, sa for cavity 1 was fixed at 85 nm, while sa for cavity 2 was changed in the 80−90 nm range. The periodic peaks with a 0.6 nm interval in the experimental spectra are caused by the Fabry-Perot resonance between the end facets of the waveguide. The red curves are fitting results based on CMT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Expected stored energy and resonance shift. Our Fano system (left) and a single cavity (right) are shown, where both cases have the same loaded Q of 2900 and unloaded Q of 8000. (a) Experimental transmission spectrum of the device employed for pump-probe measurement. (b) Stored energy in two cavities calculated by CMT. The optical input power was assumed to be 1 mW. (c) Expected resonant shift when considering generated carrier density in the cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Switching dynamics acquired by pump-probe experiment for different pump energies Up. A positive time delay is defined as the pump pulse arriving before the probe pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Switching characteristics and their comparison with those for a single cavity. (a) Experimental results for switching contrast (left) and switching time window (right) as a function of pump energy. Transmission spectra for Fano (Q = 2900) and Lorentzian resonances (Q = 6500) are also shown. (b) Simulated results based on CMT. The results for a single cavity (Lorentzian) are also plotted with different levels of probe wavelength detuning (Δλprobe/δ) from the resonant peak.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical investigation of switching performance for Fano system and its comparison with those for single cavity. (a) Signal bandwidth for different levels of wavelength detuning between two cavities Δλdet and Q factors. Insets are the transmission spectra for different parameters. The black curve is the simulated result for the experimental parameters, while the red and green curves are those for different Qunload, Qcpl, and Qcc, as indicated in the figure. (b) and (c) show the switching contrast (left) and switching energy (right) for signal bandwidths of 40 and 10 Gb/s, respectively. Blue plots denote the experimental results. Dashed lines indicate the simulated results for a single cavity, in which we assumed Qcpl to be 12000 and 52000 for signal bandwidths of 40 and 10 Gb/s, respectively.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d a 1 dt =( j ω 1 1 τ t1 ) a 1 + κ 1 s 1+ +j κ cc a 2
d a 2 dt =( j ω 2 1 τ t2 ) a 1 +j κ cc a 1
τ t 1 = τ int 1 + τ abs 1 + τ cpl 1
s 1 = s 1+ κ 1 a 1
s 2 = κ 2 a 1
d N i dt = U i hω V i ( 1 τ abs + 1 2 τ TPA ) N i τ c

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