Abstract

We achieved 50-Gb/s operation of a ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for the first time. The pin-diode phase shifter, which consists of a side-wall-grating waveguide, was loaded into the ring resonator. The forward-biased operation mode was applied, which exhibited a VπL as small as 0.28 V·cm at 25 GHz. The driving voltage and optical insertion loss at 50-Gb/s were 1.96 Vpp and 5.2 dB, respectively.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akagawa, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Akiyama, S.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baba, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fedeli, J.-M. M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F. Y.

Geis, M. W.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Grein, M. E.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hatori, N.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herrera, J.

Hirayama, N.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horikawa, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Hu, Y.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imai, M.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Ippen, E. P.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikura, N.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koshino, K.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kurahashi, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, X.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Noguchi, Y.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

O’Faolain, L.

Okayama, H.

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-W.

Park, M.

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poon, J. K. S.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

Rasigade, G.

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, W. D.

Sakai, Y.

Sanchis, P.

Schmidt, B.

Sekaric, L.

Seki, M.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shinkawa, M.

Shubin, I.

Sorace, C. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, M.

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyama, M.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Usuki, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (submitted to).

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125(612502), 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, K.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamamoto, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yoon, J. U.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, J.-B.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag pn junctions,” IEEE Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top view and (b) schematic of our silicon modulator, which corresponds to dotted box in (a). (c) SEM image of fabricated phase shifter based on side-wall-grating waveguide before being covered with oxide cladding layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

, Transmission spectra for various forward-bias voltages from 0 to 1.2 V. Inset shows FSR of resonator with value of 8.46 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

, Measured optical frequency responses for various wavelengths of input light and transmission spectra of modulator. (a) Optical frequency responses and (b) transmission spectrum at forward bias condition of 0.92 V. Input wavelengths are indicated using same color plotting between (a) and (b). (c) Optical frequency responses and (d) transmission spectrum at reverse bias condition of −3 V. Input wavelengths are indicated using same manner in Fig. 3(a) and 3(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Setup of large-signal modulation experiment (b) 50-Gb/s pre-emphasis electrical driving signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response curve of the FIR digital filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) 50-Gb/s optical eye diagram with driving voltage of 1.96 Vpp. The dynamic extinction ratio (ER) was 4.58 dB. Insertion loss (IL) was 5.2 dB (b) 44-Gb/s optical eye diagram with driving voltage of 1.87 Vpp. ER and IL were 4.8 dB and 5.3 dB respectively. ER means the ratio between the 0-level optical signal (P0) and 1-level optical signal (P1), which can be described as ER = 10 log10(P1/ P0). We used levels indicated in the graphs as “0 Level” and “1 Level” for P0 and P1, respectively. To determine the IL, we measured the optical output power (Iref) as a reference at the nonresonant wavelength when the diodes were kept only DC-bias without high-frequency voltage. Next, we measured the average optical-output power (Imod) from the modulator during 50-Gb/s operation. By using these two values, IL was determined as IL = 10 log10(Imod / Iref)

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