Abstract

We report on the effect of a p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer (EBL) on the electroluminescence from n-type ZnO/undoped ZnO/p-type ZnO light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL was introduced between the undoped and p-type ZnO layers. The p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL increased the ultraviolet emission by 140% at 60 mA and decreased the broad deep-level emission from ZnO LEDs. The calculated band structures and carrier distribution in ZnO LEDs show that p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL effectively suppresses the electron overflow from undoped ZnO to p-type ZnO and increases the hole concentration in the undoped ZnO layer.

© 2013 OSA

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2011 (1)

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. C. Look, “Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B80(1–3), 383–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ban, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bian, J. M.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, Y.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. S.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chow, P. P.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Czernecki, R.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dabiran, A.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, G. T.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Falanga, M.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q. J.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franssen, G.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grzanka, S.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hahm, J. I.

Hansen, M.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, H. P.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heikman, S.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hertog, B.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L. Z.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. K.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iliadis, A. A.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Izuno, K.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. A.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, H.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, C. K.

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, S.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krowicki, K.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

Kwon, B. J.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, M.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. W.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. P.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

C. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, and J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Look, “Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B80(1–3), 383–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lunev, A.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y. M.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mares, J. W.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. S.

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olmedo, M.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. K.

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pattison, P. M.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. C.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, G.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. V.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vispute, R. D.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

Xie, J. Q.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, W. Z.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z. Z.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y. J.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, H. Q.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B. H.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. Z.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L. P.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. H. Lim, C. K. Kang, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “UV electroluminescence emission from ZnO light-emitting diodes grown by high temperature radiofrequency sputtering,” Adv. Mater.18(20), 2720–2724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

D. C. Look, “Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B80(1–3), 383–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

See http://www.semitech.us/products/SiLENSe/ for details on the software package.

E. F. Schubert, “Electron-blocking layers” in Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 2006), pp. 81–82.

D. E. Sunstein, “A scatter communications link at ultraviolet frequencies,” Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1968).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the ZnO LED with a p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) I–V characteristics of ZnO LEDs with and without p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL. (b) EL spectra of the ZnO LEDs with and without the p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL, operating at a forward current of 50 mA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EL spectrum of ZnO LED at 50 mA and (b) PL spectra of undoped ZnO and p-type ZnO layers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Total output power of ZnO LEDs with and without the p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL as a function of injection current. (b) Integrated UV emission intensity of ZnO LEDs with and without the p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL as a function of injection current.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated carrier concentrations of ZnO LEDs (a) without and (b) with the p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL. (c) Calculated energy band diagram of ZnO LED with the p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O EBL.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical properties of the n-type ZnO substrate, undoped ZnO, p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O, and p-type ZnO layers measured using the van der Pauw method at room temperature.

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