Abstract

The design and characterization of silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8μm is reported. The devices are fabricated on 200mm SOI wafers in a CMOS pilot line. Both arrayed waveguide grating structures and planar concave grating structures were designed and tested. Low insertion loss (1.5-2.5dB) and good crosstalk characteristics (15-20dB) are demonstrated, together with waveguide propagation losses in the range of 3 to 6dB/cm.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (6)

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Hallynck and P. Bienstman, “Integrated optical pressure sensors in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 443–450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. B. Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Reimer, M. Nedeljkovic, D. J. M. Stothard, M. O. S. Esnault, C. Reardon, L. O’Faolain, M. Dunn, G. Z. Mashanovich, and T. F. Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “Phasar-based wdm-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartolozzi, I.

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Cerutti, L.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. B. Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N. G.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. B. Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Esnault, M. O. S.

Estevez, M. C.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Gassenq, A.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hallynck, E.

E. Hallynck and P. Bienstman, “Integrated optical pressure sensors in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 443–450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hattasan, N.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Jaberansary, E.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. B. Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Krauss, T. F.

Kuyken, B.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Lechuga, L. M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lim, D. R.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Masaud, T. B.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. B. Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Milosevic, M. M.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. B. Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miloševic, M. M.

Nedeljkovic, M.

O’Faolain, L.

Osgood, R. M.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Owens, N.

Reardon, C.

Reed, G. T.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. B. Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reimer, C.

Rodriguez, J. B.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “Phasar-based wdm-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stothard, D. J. M.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Teo, E. J.

Tournie, E.

G. Roelkens, W. M. J. Green, B. Kuyken, X. Liu, N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, R. M. Osgood, E. Tournie, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon photonics for short-wave infrared spectroscopy,” J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 292–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “Phasar-based wdm-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, “Compact wavelength selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, B.

Yu, M. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of wafer-stack fabrication by layer deposition (drawings are not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Representative SEM cross-section image of a waveguide structure implemented in the imecAP process where top oxide is partially etched for better imaging; (b) a bird’s eye view of an imec400 waveguide structure; (c-d) mode profile of the imecAP waveguide cross-sections; (e) mode profile of the imec400 waveguide cross-section. Actual dimensions for waveguides are given in section 3.1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic top view of grating couplers connecting to the different types of waveguide circuits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Waveguide losses at wavelength 3760 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Waveguide loss versus wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Substrate leakage loss versus wavelength for the respective waveguide structures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic view of an AWG illustrating all critical structures. (b) a detail of the shallow-deep transition used in AWG2 at the star coupler waveguide interface together with an SEM picture of this part of the AWG.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission spectrum of AWG1, AWG2 and AWG3 respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic view of planar concave grating

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Normalized transmission response of PCG1 and PCG2 respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design and layout parameters summary for AWGs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Design and layout parameters summary for PCGs

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