Abstract

We demonstrate electroabsorption contrast greater than 5 dB over the entire telecommunication S- and C-bands with only 1V drive using a new Ge/SiGe QW epitaxy design approach; further, this is demonstrated with the thinnest Ge/SiGe epitaxy to date, using a virtual substrate only 320-nm-thick. We use an eigenmode expansion method to model the optical coupling between SOI waveguides and both vertically and butt-coupled Ge/SiGe devices, and show that this reduction in thickness is expected to lead to a significant improvement in the insertion loss of waveguide-integrated devices.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.
  4. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1430–1432 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Onaran, M. C. Onbasli, A. Yesilyurt, H. Y. Yu, A. M. Nayfeh, and A. K. Okyay, “Silicon-germanium multi-quantum well photodetectors in the near infrared,” Opt. Express20, 7608–7615 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Kanel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 031106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97, 1166–1185 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express20, A293–A308 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. M. Giovane, H. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 541–543 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. L. Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett.35, 2913–2915 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14, 9203–9210 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. D. Cressler, SiGe and Si Strained-Layer Epitaxy for Silicon Heterostructure Devices (CRC Press-Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, 2008).
  20. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Liu, “GeSi photodetectors and electro-absorption modulators for Si electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT (2007).
  22. D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots: Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, 3rd ed. (Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 2009).
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  27. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518–526 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. “ www.photond.com ,” (2012).
  29. R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express20, A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Onaran, M. C. Onbasli, A. Yesilyurt, H. Y. Yu, A. M. Nayfeh, and A. K. Okyay, “Silicon-germanium multi-quantum well photodetectors in the near infrared,” Opt. Express20, 7608–7615 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Kanel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Tech. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35, 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. L. Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett.35, 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. M. Giovane, H. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. M. Giovane, H. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Bowers, J. E.

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Cannon, D. D.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. L. Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett.35, 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaisakul, P.

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

Claussen, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Claussen, S. A.

Cohen, O.

Cooper, J.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Tech. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

Coudevylle, J.

Coudevylle, J.-R.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cressler, J. D.

J. D. Cressler, SiGe and Si Strained-Layer Epitaxy for Silicon Heterostructure Devices (CRC Press-Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, 2008).

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edmond, S.

Edwards, E.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, E. H.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Fang, A. W.

Fei, E.

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Fei, E. T.

Fidaner, O.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frigerio, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, E.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Kanel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. L. Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett.35, 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovane, L. M.

L. M. Giovane, H. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, E.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Kanel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guzzi, M.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Kanel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Harrison, P.

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots: Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, 3rd ed. (Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 2009).

Herman, N.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikonic, Z.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Tech. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

Isella, G.

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Jongthammanurak, S.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Kamins, T. I.

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelsall, R.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Tech. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35, 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Giovane, H. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. H.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y.-H.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, L.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Tech. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

Liu, J.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35, 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, “GeSi photodetectors and electro-absorption modulators for Si electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT (2007).

Luan, H.

L. M. Giovane, H. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35, 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express20, A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Nayfeh, A. M.

Okyay, A.

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

Onaran, E.

Onbasli, M. C.

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, Y.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. T. Fei, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasurek, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum well electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express20, 29164–29173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Roth, J.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouifed, M.

Rouifed, M.-S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roux, X. L.

Saraswat, K.

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Schaevitz, R. K.

Shambat, G.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Sun, X.

Tasurek, E.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valavanis, A.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Tech. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

Vivien, L.

von Kanel, H.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Kanel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

Wada, K.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, P.

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yesilyurt, A.

Yu, H. Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Kanel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Giovane, H. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49 –50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 187 –197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

O. Fidaner, A. Okyay, J. Roth, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. Saraswat, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge\SiGe quantum well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 1631 –1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Tech. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

J. of Appl. Phys.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. of Appl. Phys.98, 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band edge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conf. on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” (2011), pp. 80–82.

J. D. Cressler, SiGe and Si Strained-Layer Epitaxy for Silicon Heterostructure Devices (CRC Press-Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, 2008).

J. Liu, “GeSi photodetectors and electro-absorption modulators for Si electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT (2007).

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots: Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, 3rd ed. (Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 2009).

“ www.photond.com ,” (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Surface AFM showing 0.162 nm RMS roughness. To emphasize the majority of the behavior, the color bar shows variations from −0.5 to +0.3 nm. White regions indicate positive variations beyond 0.3 nm. The minimum and maximum were −0.485 nm and 2.078 nm. (b) Cross-sectional TEM image of the epitaxial structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption-per-pass spectra deduced from vertical photocurrent measurements from a 5QW Ge/SiGe QW epitaxy embedded in a diode with a 220nm intrinsic region. (b) Photocurrent absorption contrast ratios at 1V swing with biases between 0.1V forward and 2.3V reverse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the vertically-coupled lateral taper device geometry. The strip waveguide is 600-nm-wide and is etched into 400-nm-thick SOI. (b) The incoming optical mode in the SOI waveguide core is transformed into the mode in the SiGe device section (c) using the tapered mode adapters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The coupling efficiency of the vertically-coupled lateral tapers as a function of the taper length for various total thicknesses of the Ge/SiGe epitaxial layers. (b) The taper length when the coupling loss is −0.05 dB, with a power-law fit giving an exponent of 2.28.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The optical coupling losses from a butt-coupled geometry with epitaxial layers and a total thickness of 900 nm. (b) The optical coupling losses for a butt coupled geometry with a 560-nm-thick epitaxial structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The insertion loss (green) and extinction ratio (red) of the butt-coupled geometry device as a function of its length. (a) At 1550 nm and (b) at 1490 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Epitaxy design for the Ge/SiGe QW structure grown on silicon.

Equations (1)

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ε | | = 0.81 T 0 T 1 ( α SiGe ( T ) α Si ( T ) ) d T

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