Abstract

Straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides are demonstrated as biosensors for the detection of cells, proteins and changes in the bulk refractive index of solutions. The sensors consist of 5 μm wide 22 nm thick Au stripes embedded in polymer (CYTOPTM) with microfluidic channels etched into the top cladding. Bulk sensing is demonstrated by sequentially injecting six solutions of different refractive indices in 2 × 10−3 RIU increments; such index steps were detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~1000. Selective capture of cells is demonstrated using Au waveguides functionalized with antibodies against blood group A, and red blood cells of group A and O in buffer as positive and negative analyte. Bovine serum albumin in buffer was used to demonstrate protein sensing. A monolayer of bovine serum albumin physisorbed on a carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer on Au was detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~300. Overall, the biosensor demonstrated a good capability for detecting bulk changes in solution and for sensing analyte over a very wide range of mass (from cells to proteins). The biosensors are compact, inexpensive to fabricate, and may find use over a wide range of cost-sensitive sensing and detection applications.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. V. Silin, H. Weetall, and D. J. Vanderah, “SPR studies of the nonspecific adsorption kinetics of human IgG and BSA on gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs),” J. Colloid Interface Sci.185(1), 94–103 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. A. De Feijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a tool to study the adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at the air-water interface,” Biopolymers17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton modes guided by a metal film of finite width bounded by different dielectrics,” Opt. Express7(10), 329–335 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. Charbonneau, M. Tencer, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of surface sensing using long-range surface plasmon waveguides on silica,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.134(2), 455–461 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Tencer, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “AFM study of BSA adlayers on Au stripes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(23), 9209–9214 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. Tencer, A. Olivieri, B. Tezel, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Chip-scale electrochemical differentiation of SAM-coated gold features using a probe array,” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(3), J77–J82 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in cytop with integrated microfluidic channels,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B28(4), 729–735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Joo, S. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 201105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1(3), 484–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Electrochemical differentiation and TOF-SIMS characterization of thiol-coated gold features for (bio)chemical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(12), J386–J392 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Charbonneau, M. Tencer, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of surface sensing using long-range surface plasmon waveguides on silica,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.134(2), 455–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.141(2), 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Guo, P. D. Keathley, and J. T. Hastings, “Dual-mode surface-plasmon-resonance sensors using angular interrogation,” Opt. Lett.33(5), 512–514 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Act. B Chem.123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “AFM study of BSA adlayers on Au stripes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(23), 9209–9214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(11), 4391–4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.100(4), 043104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem.77(13), 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Löfås, “Optimizing the hit-to-lead process using SPR analysis,” Assay Drug Dev. Technol.2(4), 407–415 (2004).
[PubMed]

N. Kinrot, “Analysis of bulk material sensing using a periodically segmented waveguide Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for biosensing,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(10), 2296–2301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach–Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. G. Quinn, R. O’Kennedy, M. Smyth, J. Moulds, and T. Frame, “Detection of blood group antigens utilising immobilised antibodies and surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods206(1-2), 87–96 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Silin, H. Weetall, and D. J. Vanderah, “SPR studies of the nonspecific adsorption kinetics of human IgG and BSA on gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs),” J. Colloid Interface Sci.185(1), 94–103 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. Löfås and B. Johnsson, “A novel hydrogel matrix on gold surfaces in surface plasmon resonance sensors for fast and efficient covalent immobilization of ligands,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1526–1528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. A. De Feijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a tool to study the adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at the air-water interface,” Biopolymers17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Advincula, R. C.

M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agnarsson, B.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allard, W. J.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnfinnsdottir, N.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benjamins, J.

J. A. De Feijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a tool to study the adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at the air-water interface,” Biopolymers17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bentien, A.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

M. Tencer, A. Olivieri, B. Tezel, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Chip-scale electrochemical differentiation of SAM-coated gold features using a probe array,” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(3), J77–J82 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in cytop with integrated microfluidic channels,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B28(4), 729–735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Electrochemical differentiation and TOF-SIMS characterization of thiol-coated gold features for (bio)chemical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(12), J386–J392 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1(3), 484–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, M. Tencer, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of surface sensing using long-range surface plasmon waveguides on silica,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.134(2), 455–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “AFM study of BSA adlayers on Au stripes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(23), 9209–9214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(11), 4391–4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.100(4), 043104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton modes guided by a metal film of finite width bounded by different dielectrics,” Opt. Express7(10), 329–335 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boisen, A.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breukelaar, I.

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.100(4), 043104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budd, G. T.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castillo, J.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

R. Charbonneau, M. Tencer, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of surface sensing using long-range surface plasmon waveguides on silica,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.134(2), 455–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “AFM study of BSA adlayers on Au stripes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(23), 9209–9214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.100(4), 043104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Cheng, Y. C.

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.141(2), 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in cytop with integrated microfluidic channels,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B28(4), 729–735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem.77(13), 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cristofanilli, M.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Feijter, J. A.

J. A. De Feijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a tool to study the adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at the air-water interface,” Biopolymers17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dostálek, J.

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, G. V.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutta, P.

M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, M. J.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Émneus, J.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Estroff, L. A.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etheridge, S.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fafard, S.

Felipe, M. J.

M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, L. M.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frame, T.

J. G. Quinn, R. O’Kennedy, M. Smyth, J. Moulds, and T. Frame, “Detection of blood group antigens utilising immobilised antibodies and surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods206(1-2), 87–96 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, G.

Gudjonsson, T.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Halldorsson, J.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hastings, J. T.

Hayes, D. F.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach–Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heiskanen, A. R.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Act. B Chem.123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ingthorsson, S.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, M. H.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Johnsson, B.

S. Löfås and B. Johnsson, “A novel hydrogel matrix on gold surfaces in surface plasmon resonance sensors for fast and efficient covalent immobilization of ligands,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1526–1528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Joo, Y. H.

Y. H. Joo, S. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 201105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kasry, A.

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keathley, P. D.

Kinrot, N.

Kjaer, K.

Knoll, W.

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kriebel, J. K.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahoud, N.

R. Charbonneau, M. Tencer, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of surface sensing using long-range surface plasmon waveguides on silica,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.134(2), 455–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “AFM study of BSA adlayers on Au stripes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(23), 9209–9214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(11), 4391–4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach–Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Larsen, M. S.

Lee, H. J.

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem.77(13), 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Skrzek, E.

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in cytop with integrated microfluidic channels,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B28(4), 729–735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Löfås, S.

S. Löfås, “Optimizing the hit-to-lead process using SPR analysis,” Assay Drug Dev. Technol.2(4), 407–415 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. Löfås and B. Johnsson, “A novel hydrogel matrix on gold surfaces in surface plasmon resonance sensors for fast and efficient covalent immobilization of ligands,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1526–1528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G.

Love, J. C.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnusson, R.

Y. H. Joo, S. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 201105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, N.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matera, J.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiussi, G.

Mattiussi, G. A.

McKinnon, R.

Miller, M. C.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mischki, T.

Moulds, J.

J. G. Quinn, R. O’Kennedy, M. Smyth, J. Moulds, and T. Frame, “Detection of blood group antigens utilising immobilised antibodies and surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods206(1-2), 87–96 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, H.-Y.

M. Tencer, A. Olivieri, B. Tezel, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Chip-scale electrochemical differentiation of SAM-coated gold features using a probe array,” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(3), J77–J82 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Electrochemical differentiation and TOF-SIMS characterization of thiol-coated gold features for (bio)chemical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(12), J386–J392 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Kennedy, R.

J. G. Quinn, R. O’Kennedy, M. Smyth, J. Moulds, and T. Frame, “Detection of blood group antigens utilising immobilised antibodies and surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods206(1-2), 87–96 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivieri, A.

M. Tencer, A. Olivieri, B. Tezel, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Chip-scale electrochemical differentiation of SAM-coated gold features using a probe array,” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(3), J77–J82 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pernites, R.

M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ponnapati, R.

M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Quinn, J. G.

J. G. Quinn, R. O’Kennedy, M. Smyth, J. Moulds, and T. Frame, “Detection of blood group antigens utilising immobilised antibodies and surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods206(1-2), 87–96 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roach, J. A.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scales, C.

Schmid, J. H.

Shew, B. Y.

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.141(2), 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silin, V.

V. Silin, H. Weetall, and D. J. Vanderah, “SPR studies of the nonspecific adsorption kinetics of human IgG and BSA on gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs),” J. Colloid Interface Sci.185(1), 94–103 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Act. B Chem.123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, M.

J. G. Quinn, R. O’Kennedy, M. Smyth, J. Moulds, and T. Frame, “Detection of blood group antigens utilising immobilised antibodies and surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods206(1-2), 87–96 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, S.

Y. H. Joo, S. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 201105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stopeck, A.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tait, R. N.

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in cytop with integrated microfluidic channels,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B28(4), 729–735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tencer, M.

M. Tencer, A. Olivieri, B. Tezel, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Chip-scale electrochemical differentiation of SAM-coated gold features using a probe array,” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(3), J77–J82 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Electrochemical differentiation and TOF-SIMS characterization of thiol-coated gold features for (bio)chemical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(12), J386–J392 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, M. Tencer, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of surface sensing using long-range surface plasmon waveguides on silica,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.134(2), 455–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “AFM study of BSA adlayers on Au stripes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(23), 9209–9214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tenje, M.

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Terstappen, L. W. W. M.

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tezel, B.

M. Tencer, A. Olivieri, B. Tezel, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Chip-scale electrochemical differentiation of SAM-coated gold features using a probe array,” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(3), J77–J82 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. H.

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.141(2), 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vala, M.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanderah, D. J.

V. Silin, H. Weetall, and D. J. Vanderah, “SPR studies of the nonspecific adsorption kinetics of human IgG and BSA on gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs),” J. Colloid Interface Sci.185(1), 94–103 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veer, F. A.

J. A. De Feijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a tool to study the adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at the air-water interface,” Biopolymers17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

Wark, A. W.

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem.77(13), 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weetall, H.

V. Silin, H. Weetall, and D. J. Vanderah, “SPR studies of the nonspecific adsorption kinetics of human IgG and BSA on gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs),” J. Colloid Interface Sci.185(1), 94–103 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D. X.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1(3), 484–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem.77(13), 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. H. Joo, S. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 201105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Tencer, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “AFM study of BSA adlayers on Au stripes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(23), 9209–9214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Assay Drug Dev. Technol. (1)

S. Löfås, “Optimizing the hit-to-lead process using SPR analysis,” Assay Drug Dev. Technol.2(4), 407–415 (2004).
[PubMed]

Biopolymers (1)

J. A. De Feijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a tool to study the adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at the air-water interface,” Biopolymers17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

D. F. Hayes, M. Cristofanilli, G. T. Budd, M. J. Ellis, A. Stopeck, M. C. Miller, J. Matera, W. J. Allard, G. V. Doyle, and L. W. W. M. Terstappen, “Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival,” Clin. Cancer Res.12(14), 4218–4224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.100(4), 043104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

S. Löfås and B. Johnsson, “A novel hydrogel matrix on gold surfaces in surface plasmon resonance sensors for fast and efficient covalent immobilization of ligands,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1526–1528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

V. Silin, H. Weetall, and D. J. Vanderah, “SPR studies of the nonspecific adsorption kinetics of human IgG and BSA on gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs),” J. Colloid Interface Sci.185(1), 94–103 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

M. Tencer, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Electrochemical differentiation and TOF-SIMS characterization of thiol-coated gold features for (bio)chemical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(12), J386–J392 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tencer, A. Olivieri, B. Tezel, H.-Y. Nie, and P. Berini, “Chip-scale electrochemical differentiation of SAM-coated gold features using a probe array,” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(3), J77–J82 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Immunol. Methods (1)

J. G. Quinn, R. O’Kennedy, M. Smyth, J. Moulds, and T. Frame, “Detection of blood group antigens utilising immobilised antibodies and surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods206(1-2), 87–96 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in cytop with integrated microfluidic channels,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B28(4), 729–735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

L. M. Fischer, M. Tenje, A. R. Heiskanen, N. Masuda, J. Castillo, A. Bentien, J. Émneus, M. H. Jakobsen, and A. Boisen, “Gold cleaning methods for electrochemical detection applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 1282–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng.87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Plasmonics (1)

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

M. J. Felipe, P. Dutta, R. Pernites, R. Ponnapati, and R. C. Advincula, “Electropolymerized bioresistant coatings of OEGylated dendroncarbazoles: design parameters and protein resistance SPR studies,” Polymer (Guildf.)53(2), 427–437 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Act. B Chem. (1)

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Act. B Chem.123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.141(2), 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (3)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach–Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, M. Tencer, N. Lahoud, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of surface sensing using long-range surface plasmon waveguides on silica,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.134(2), 455–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Greg, Hermanson, Bioconjugate Techniques, 2nd ed.(Academic, 2008), Chap. II(3).

H. Asiri, “Fabrication of surface plasmon biosensors in cytop,” Master’s Thesis, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sensing device with integrated fluidics: a) schematic of the device placed on the metal base with a Plexiglas jig on top; the volume of the fluidic cell is 20 µL; b) image of the device with fluidics fixed on the metal base.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the interrogation setup with the sensing device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of a Au stripe sensor functionalized with 16-MHA to H2O/Glycerol solutions with different refractive indices in 2 × 10−3 RIU increments at λ0 = 1310 nm and a continuous flow-rate of 20 µl /min. The cycle is repeated once.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response of a Au stripe sensor for selective capture of human red blood cells (RBCs). Surface functionalization: antibodies against blood group A (Anti-A) conjugated to a 16-MHA through a EDC/NHS reaction. O-type RBCs are injected at 7 min and removed at 14 min; A-type RBCs are injected at 24 min. Experimental conditions: λ0 = 1310 nm, input power: 5 dBm and the flow-rate is variable.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response of a Au stripe sensor for BSA physisorption on two surfaces: 16-MHA (carboxyl-terminated, adsorptive surface shown in blue) and PEG (non-specific adsorption preventing surface, shown in red). Experimental conditions: λ0 = 1310 nm, and a continuous flow-rate of 20 µl/min.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical response of the waveguide due to adlayer formation: a) Modeled loss response of a straight waveguide due to the formation of an adlayer thereon of thickness a and refractive index na = 1.5. b) Distribution of the Ey field component of the LRSPP (ssb0 [3]) mode used for sensing.

Equations (3)

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P out,s (a)= P in,s C 2 (a) e 2 α s (a)L .
IL(a)=2 C L (a)+LMPA(a).
Γ= a( n a n c ) n / c .

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