Abstract

We present a method to introduce a large biaxial tensile strain in an ultra-thin germanium-on-insulator (GOI) using selective oxidation of SiGe epilayer on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. A circular patterned Si0.81Ge0.19 mesa on SOI substrate with the sidewall protected by Si3N4 or SiO2 is selectively oxidized to generate local 12 nm GOI with high crystal quality, which shows enhanced photoluminescence due to large tensile strain. Direct band photoluminescence peak significantly shifts to longer wavelength as compared to that from bulk Ge due to a combination of strain-induced band gap reduction and quantum confinement effect.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained Germanium-on-Insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2009

C. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Zhou, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Enhanced photoluminescence of strained Ge with a δ-doping SiGe layer on silicon and silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 251102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H. Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. I. Vexler, S. E. Tyaginov, and A. F. Shulekin, “Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(50), 8057–8068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. H. Tan, K. Brunner, D. Bougeard, and G. Abstreiter, “Raman characterization of strain and composition in small-sized self-assembled Si/Ge dots,” Phys. Rev. B68(12), 125302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. G. Van de Walle; “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

G. A. Slack and S. F. Bartram, “Thermal expansion of some diamondlike crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.46(1), 89 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

P. H. Tan, K. Brunner, D. Bougeard, and G. Abstreiter, “Raman characterization of strain and composition in small-sized self-assembled Si/Ge dots,” Phys. Rev. B68(12), 125302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balram, K.

Balram, K. C.

Bartram, S. F.

G. A. Slack and S. F. Bartram, “Thermal expansion of some diamondlike crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.46(1), 89 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, G.

Bensahel, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bougeard, D.

P. H. Tan, K. Brunner, D. Bougeard, and G. Abstreiter, “Raman characterization of strain and composition in small-sized self-assembled Si/Ge dots,” Phys. Rev. B68(12), 125302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boulmer, J.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M.

Brongersma, M. L.

Brunner, K.

P. H. Tan, K. Brunner, D. Bougeard, and G. Abstreiter, “Raman characterization of strain and composition in small-sized self-assembled Si/Ge dots,” Phys. Rev. B68(12), 125302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, S.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

Chen, S.

C. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Zhou, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Enhanced photoluminescence of strained Ge with a δ-doping SiGe layer on silicon and silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 251102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

C. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Zhou, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Enhanced photoluminescence of strained Ge with a δ-doping SiGe layer on silicon and silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 251102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. L.

Conrad, K. A.

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Damlencourt, J. F.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

David, S.

de Kersauson, M.

Débarre, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dooryhee, E.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

El Kurdi, M.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G.

Fitch, A.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frost, D.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gerward, L.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamaya, K.

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained Germanium-on-Insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hames, G.

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirashita, N.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoshi, Y.

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained Germanium-on-Insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. T.

Huang, K. C. Y.

Irene, E. A.

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jain, J. R.

Jakomin, R.

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kermarrec, O.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

Kociniewski, T.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, R.

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumpel, A. E.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurdi, M. E.

Lai, H.

C. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Zhou, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Enhanced photoluminescence of strained Ge with a δ-doping SiGe layer on silicon and silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 251102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lathrop, R. E.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Zhou, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Enhanced photoluminescence of strained Ge with a δ-doping SiGe layer on silicon and silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 251102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindelov, H.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Ly-Gagnon, D. S.

Mezouar, M.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miaoulis, I. N.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. A. B.

Miyao, M.

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained Germanium-on-Insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mori-Sanchez, P.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, Y.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakaharai, S.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nam, D.

Ngo, T.-P.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nieva, P.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

Pan, D.

Recio, J.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

Sagnes, I.

Saraswat, K.

Sauvage, S.

Sawano, K.

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained Germanium-on-Insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shambat, G.

Shiraki, Y.

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained Germanium-on-Insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shulekin, A. F.

M. I. Vexler, S. E. Tyaginov, and A. F. Shulekin, “Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(50), 8057–8068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slack, G. A.

G. A. Slack and S. F. Bartram, “Thermal expansion of some diamondlike crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.46(1), 89 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Slanina, J. B.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ståhl, K.

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, N.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sukhdeo, D.

Sun, X.

Tada, H.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

P. H. Tan, K. Brunner, D. Bougeard, and G. Abstreiter, “Raman characterization of strain and composition in small-sized self-assembled Si/Ge dots,” Phys. Rev. B68(12), 125302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tezuka, T.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, E.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyaginov, S. E.

M. I. Vexler, S. E. Tyaginov, and A. F. Shulekin, “Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(50), 8057–8068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle; “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vexler, M. I.

M. I. Vexler, S. E. Tyaginov, and A. F. Shulekin, “Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(50), 8057–8068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Wada, K.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

White, J. S.

Wong, P. Y.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wortman, J. J.

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. Y.

Yuan, Z.

Zafar, S.

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zavracky, P.

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

C. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Zhou, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Enhanced photoluminescence of strained Ge with a δ-doping SiGe layer on silicon and silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 251102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained Germanium-on-Insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zafar, K. A. Conrad, Q. Liu, E. A. Irene, G. Hames, R. Kuehn, and J. J. Wortman, “Thickness and effective electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(7), 1031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Zhou, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Enhanced photoluminescence of strained Ge with a δ-doping SiGe layer on silicon and silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 251102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si (100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Hirashita, E. Toyoda, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Formation process of high-purity Ge-on-insulator layers by Ge-condensation technique,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 024515–024518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tada, A. E. Kumpel, R. E. Lathrop, J. B. Slanina, P. Nieva, P. Zavracky, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, “Thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide thin films at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Slack and S. F. Bartram, “Thermal expansion of some diamondlike crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.46(1), 89 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

M. I. Vexler, S. E. Tyaginov, and A. F. Shulekin, “Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter17(50), 8057–8068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. B

P. H. Tan, K. Brunner, D. Bougeard, and G. Abstreiter, “Raman characterization of strain and composition in small-sized self-assembled Si/Ge dots,” Phys. Rev. B68(12), 125302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, H. Lindelov, L. Gerward, K. Ståhl, J. Recio, P. Mori-Sanchez, S. Carlson, M. Mezouar, E. Dooryhee, A. Fitch, and D. Frost, “Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. B65(16), 161202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

C. G. Van de Walle; “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Liu, X. Sun, P. Becla, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Towards a Ge-based laser for CMOS applications,” in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International. Conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Italy, 2008), pp. 16–18.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, Y. Rong, M. Makarova, M. Li, R. Chen, T. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. Harris, “Efficient luminescence in highly tensile-strained germanium,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Group IV Photonics, 265–267 (2009).

C. Boztug, F. Chen, J. Sanchez-Perez, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap germanium active layers pumped above transparency based on tensilely strained nanomembranes,” CLEO:2011, PDPA2 (2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematics of fabrication process of ultra-thin GOI. The mesa of SiGe on SOI were etched and protected by SiO2 (a) and Si3N4 (b), respectively, and then selectively oxidized to generate ultra-thin GOI materials. (c) Sample C without defining patterns was for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the SiGe layer thickness and the average Ge content on the oxide thickness during the Ge condensation processes. The solid lines are the theory results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HRTEM images of the ultra-thin GOI substrates. 12 nm GOI is uniform with a clear and sharp interface between BOX and SiO2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra from sample A, B, C and bulk Ge for comparison to evaluation of strain in the Ge layer. The inset is the whole Raman spectra from the sample A.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Room temperature direct band photoluminescence from sample A, B, C and bulk Ge for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak energy shift as a function of strain in Ge film. The dashed line shows the theoretical results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Finite element calculations of the diameter of 32 μm Ge mesa with the sidewall surrounded by SiO2 (a) and Si3N4 (b), respectively.

Equations (1)

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ω GeGe = ω 0 400 ε //

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