Abstract

We describe the results of an experiment designed to compare the radiometric performance of four different spectroradiometers in ideal field conditions. A carefully designed experiment where instruments were simultaneously triggered was used to measure the Hemispherical Conical Reflectance Factors (HCRF) of four targets of varying reflectance. The experiment was in two parts. Stage 1 covered a 2 hour period finishing at solar noon, where 50 measurements of the targets were collected in sequence. Stage 2 comprised 10 rapid sequential measurements over each target. We applied a method for normalising full width half maximum (FWHM) differences between the instruments, which was a source of variability in the raw data. The work allowed us to determine data reproducibility, and we found that lower-cost instruments (Ocean Optics and PP Systems) produced data of similar radiometric quality to those manufactured by Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD –here we used the ASD FieldSpec Pro) in the spectral range 400-850 nm, which is the most significant region for research communities interested in measuring vegetation dynamics. Over the longer time-series there were changes in HCRF caused by the structural and spectral characteristics of some targets.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Gamon, L. Serrano, and J. S. Surfus, “The photochemical reflectance index: an optical indicator of photosynthetic radiation use efficiency across species, functional types, and nutrient levels,” Oecologia112(4), 492–501 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Zarco-Tejada, V. Gonzalez-Dugo, and J. A. J. Berni, “Fluorescence, temperature and narrow-band indices acquired from a UAV platform for water stress detection using a micro-hyperspectral imager and a thermal camera,” Remote Sens. Environ.117, 322–337 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Anderson, J. L. Dungan, and A. MacArthur, “On the reproducibility of field measured reflectance factors in the context of vegetation studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1893–1905 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. L. Castro-Esau, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and B. Rivard, “Comparison of spectral indices obtained using multiple spectroradiometers,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 276–288 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. M. Rollin, E. J. Milton, and D. R. Emery, “Reference panel anisotropy and diffuse radiation - some implications for field spectroscopy,” Int. J. Remote Sens.21(15), 2799–2810 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ.93(1-2), 188–197 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. A. Gamon, J. Peñuelas, and C. B. Field, “A narrow waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency,” Remote Sens. Environ.41(1), 35–44 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Zarco-Tejada, V. Gonzalez-Dugo, and J. A. J. Berni, “Fluorescence, temperature and narrow-band indices acquired from a UAV platform for water stress detection using a micro-hyperspectral imager and a thermal camera,” Remote Sens. Environ.117, 322–337 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Anderson, J. L. Dungan, and A. MacArthur, “On the reproducibility of field measured reflectance factors in the context of vegetation studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1893–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Castro-Esau, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and B. Rivard, “Comparison of spectral indices obtained using multiple spectroradiometers,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 276–288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ.93(1-2), 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. M. Rollin, E. J. Milton, and D. R. Emery, “Reference panel anisotropy and diffuse radiation - some implications for field spectroscopy,” Int. J. Remote Sens.21(15), 2799–2810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. A. Gamon, L. Serrano, and J. S. Surfus, “The photochemical reflectance index: an optical indicator of photosynthetic radiation use efficiency across species, functional types, and nutrient levels,” Oecologia112(4), 492–501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. A. Gamon, J. Peñuelas, and C. B. Field, “A narrow waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency,” Remote Sens. Environ.41(1), 35–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, L.

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, K.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Anderson, J. L. Dungan, and A. MacArthur, “On the reproducibility of field measured reflectance factors in the context of vegetation studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1893–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. E.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arriga, N.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, A.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balzarolo, M.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barducci, A.

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berni, J. A. J.

P. J. Zarco-Tejada, V. Gonzalez-Dugo, and J. A. J. Berni, “Fluorescence, temperature and narrow-band indices acquired from a UAV platform for water stress detection using a micro-hyperspectral imager and a thermal camera,” Remote Sens. Environ.117, 322–337 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Black, A. T.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Black, T. A.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brando, V. E.

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ.93(1-2), 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Busetto, L.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvet, J.-C.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrara, A.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castagnoli, F.

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro-Esau, K. L.

K. L. Castro-Esau, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and B. Rivard, “Comparison of spectral indices obtained using multiple spectroradiometers,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 276–288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerasoli, S.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cescatti, A.

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Claudio, H.

J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coggins, S. B.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cogliati, S.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, R.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coops, N. C.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cremonese, E.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crosta, G. F.

Damm, A.

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, S.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daumard, F.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, A. G.

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ.93(1-2), 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

di Cella, U. M.

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dungan, J. L.

K. Anderson, J. L. Dungan, and A. MacArthur, “On the reproducibility of field measured reflectance factors in the context of vegetation studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1893–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eklundh, L.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbers, J. A.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, D. R.

E. M. Rollin, E. J. Milton, and D. R. Emery, “Reference panel anisotropy and diffuse radiation - some implications for field spectroscopy,” Int. J. Remote Sens.21(15), 2799–2810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erler, A.

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Evrendilek, F.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, C. B.

J. A. Gamon, J. Peñuelas, and C. B. Field, “A narrow waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency,” Remote Sens. Environ.41(1), 35–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Galvagno, M.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamon, J. A.

J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gamon, L. Serrano, and J. S. Surfus, “The photochemical reflectance index: an optical indicator of photosynthetic radiation use efficiency across species, functional types, and nutrient levels,” Oecologia112(4), 492–501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gamon, J. Peñuelas, and C. B. Field, “A narrow waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency,” Remote Sens. Environ.41(1), 35–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Dugo, V.

P. J. Zarco-Tejada, V. Gonzalez-Dugo, and J. A. J. Berni, “Fluorescence, temperature and narrow-band indices acquired from a UAV platform for water stress detection using a micro-hyperspectral imager and a thermal camera,” Remote Sens. Environ.117, 322–337 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guanter, L.

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hagerup, S.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Handcock, R. N.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilker, T.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hillen, W.

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Julitta, T.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Juszczak, R.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaduk, J.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kia, J.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klumpp, K.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lessard, D.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Longdoz, B.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacArthur, A.

K. Anderson, J. L. Dungan, and A. MacArthur, “On the reproducibility of field measured reflectance factors in the context of vegetation studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1893–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

MacKinney, L.

J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manca, G.

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martín, M. P.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martonchik, J. V.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matteucci, G.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meroni, M.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Migliavacca, M.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milton, E. J.

E. M. Rollin, E. J. Milton, and D. R. Emery, “Reference panel anisotropy and diffuse radiation - some implications for field spectroscopy,” Int. J. Remote Sens.21(15), 2799–2810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mims, F. M.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Montagnani, L.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, J.

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morra di Cella, U.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morys, M.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nesic, Z.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nichol, C.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ourcival, J.-M.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, T. H.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panigada, C.

Peñuelas, J.

J. A. Gamon, J. Peñuelas, and C. B. Field, “A narrow waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency,” Remote Sens. Environ.41(1), 35–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Picchi, V.

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pontailler, J.-Y.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rascher, U.

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rivard, B.

K. L. Castro-Esau, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and B. Rivard, “Comparison of spectral indices obtained using multiple spectroradiometers,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 276–288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rollin, E. M.

E. M. Rollin, E. J. Milton, and D. R. Emery, “Reference panel anisotropy and diffuse radiation - some implications for field spectroscopy,” Int. J. Remote Sens.21(15), 2799–2810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rossini, M.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

K. L. Castro-Esau, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and B. Rivard, “Comparison of spectral indices obtained using multiple spectroradiometers,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 276–288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaepman, M. E.

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaepman-Strub, G.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, B.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serrano, L.

J. A. Gamon, L. Serrano, and J. S. Surfus, “The photochemical reflectance index: an optical indicator of photosynthetic radiation use efficiency across species, functional types, and nutrient levels,” Oecologia112(4), 492–501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seufert, G.

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sims, D. A.

J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siniscalco, C.

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Surfus, J. S.

J. A. Gamon, L. Serrano, and J. S. Surfus, “The photochemical reflectance index: an optical indicator of photosynthetic radiation use efficiency across species, functional types, and nutrient levels,” Oecologia112(4), 492–501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, W.

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vescovo, L.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walkup, T.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wettle, M.

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ.93(1-2), 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wohlfahrt, G.

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wulder, M. A.

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zarco-Tejada, P. J.

P. J. Zarco-Tejada, V. Gonzalez-Dugo, and J. A. J. Berni, “Fluorescence, temperature and narrow-band indices acquired from a UAV platform for water stress detection using a micro-hyperspectral imager and a thermal camera,” Remote Sens. Environ.117, 322–337 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agric. For. Meteorol. (1)

M. Rossini, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, G. Manca, S. Cogliati, L. Busetto, V. Picchi, A. Cescatti, G. Seufert, and R. Colombo, “High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field,” Agric. For. Meteorol.150(9), 1283–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biogeosci. (1)

M. Rossini, S. Cogliati, M. Meroni, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, L. Busetto, E. Cremonese, T. Julitta, C. Siniscalco, U. Morra di Cella, and R. Colombo, “Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland,” Biogeosci.9(7), 2565–2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Electron. Agric. (1)

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, Z. Nesic, M. A. Wulder, and A. T. Black, “Instrumentation and approach for unattended year round tower based measurements of spectral reflectance,” Comput. Electron. Agric.56(1), 72–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

E. M. Rollin, E. J. Milton, and D. R. Emery, “Reference panel anisotropy and diffuse radiation - some implications for field spectroscopy,” Int. J. Remote Sens.21(15), 2799–2810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, and T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res.106(D13), 14573–14582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oecologia (1)

J. A. Gamon, L. Serrano, and J. S. Surfus, “The photochemical reflectance index: an optical indicator of photosynthetic radiation use efficiency across species, functional types, and nutrient levels,” Oecologia112(4), 492–501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (10)

P. J. Zarco-Tejada, V. Gonzalez-Dugo, and J. A. J. Berni, “Fluorescence, temperature and narrow-band indices acquired from a UAV platform for water stress detection using a micro-hyperspectral imager and a thermal camera,” Remote Sens. Environ.117, 322–337 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, M. Rossini, L. Guanter, L. Alonso, U. Rascher, R. Colombo, and J. Moreno, “Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(10), 2037–2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gamon, Y. Cheng, H. Claudio, L. MacKinney, and D. A. Sims, “A mobile tram system for systematic sampling ecosystem optical properties,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 246–254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Damm, A. Erler, W. Hillen, M. Meroni, M. E. Schaepman, W. Verhoef, and U. Rascher, “Modeling the impact of spectral sensor configurations on the FLD retrieval accuracy of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1882–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing–definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Anderson, J. L. Dungan, and A. MacArthur, “On the reproducibility of field measured reflectance factors in the context of vegetation studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1893–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Castro-Esau, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and B. Rivard, “Comparison of spectral indices obtained using multiple spectroradiometers,” Remote Sens. Environ.103(3), 276–288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ.93(1-2), 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gamon, J. Peñuelas, and C. B. Field, “A narrow waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency,” Remote Sens. Environ.41(1), 35–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Hilker, N. C. Coops, S. B. Coggins, M. A. Wulder, M. Brown, T. A. Black, Z. Nesic, and D. Lessard, “Detection of foliage conditions and disturbance from multi-angular high spectral resolution remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.113(2), 421–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Meroni, A. Barducci, S. Cogliati, F. Castagnoli, M. Rossini, L. Busetto, M. Migliavacca, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, R. Colombo, and U. M. di Cella, “The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(4), 043106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

M. Balzarolo, K. Anderson, C. Nichol, M. Rossini, L. Vescovo, N. Arriga, G. Wohlfahrt, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carrara, S. Cerasoli, S. Cogliati, F. Daumard, L. Eklundh, J. A. Elbers, F. Evrendilek, R. N. Handcock, J. Kaduk, K. Klumpp, B. Longdoz, G. Matteucci, M. Meroni, L. Montagnani, J.-M. Ourcival, E. P. Sánchez-Cañete, J.-Y. Pontailler, R. Juszczak, B. Scholes, and M. P. Martín, “Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies,” Sensors (Basel)11(8), 7954–7981 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental field approach.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Atmospheric conditions during the experiment. (a) SVC HR-1024 diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio (expressed as a ratio between 0 and 1) in the visible and NIR range and (b) at a single wavelength (776 nm). (c) Microtops sun photometer water vapour data showing changes during the experimental period. (d-f) Hemispherical photographs of the sky condition over the site, at the (d) beginning; (e) middle; and (f) end of the experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Mean HCRF and (b) SD in HCRF of the grey20 panel before FWHM correction had been applied in stage 1 of the experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean HCRF plots and standard deviation in HCRF for stage 1 of the experiment showing mean HCRF (left panels) and SD in HCRF (right panels), as represented by the SD in 50 measurements of the target. Data shown are those that have been corrected to normalize the FWHM differences between instruments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coefficient of variation (CV) in HCRF for stage 1 of the experiment for the four spectroradiometers after FWHM correction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in HCRF with time at (a) 650 nm and (b) 850 nm measured by the ASD FieldSpec Pro.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Standard deviation in HCRF for stage 2 of the experiment for the four targets after FWHM correction.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Details of spectroradiometers participating in the experiment.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean HCRF for four target surfaces at 750 nm in stage 2 of the experiment (n=10).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K= 1 2π σ d 2 σ o 2 ×exp( x 2 2( σ d 2 σ o 2 ) )= 2 2ln2 2π FWH M d 2 FWH M o 2 ×exp( 4( ln2 ) x 2 FWH M d 2 FWH M o 2 )

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