Abstract

Large nonlinear phase shift achieved by exploiting intracavity second order cascaded nonlinear process in a non-phasematched second harmonic generating crystal is transformed into amplitude modulation through soft aperturing the nonlinear cavity mode variation within the laser gain medium to mode-lock a Nd:YVO4 laser. The laser delivers stable dual wavelength cw mode-locked pulse train with pulse duration 10.3 ps and average power of 1.84 W and 255 mW at 1064 nm and 532 nm respectively for a pump power of 12 W. A comprehensive theoretical analysis finds the regime of self starting and stable cascaded second order mode-locking, inconformity with the experimental result.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Closed form Gaussian beam analysis of resonators containing a Kerr medium for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun.101(5-6), 365–370 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. H. Lin and W. F. Hsieh, “Analytical design of symmetrical Kerr-lens mode-locking laser cavities,” Opt. Lett.11, 737–739 (1994).
  22. T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. I. Buchvarov, S. Saltiel, C. Iglev, and K. Koynov, “Intensity dependent change of polarization state as a result of nonlinear phase shift in type II frequency doubling crystals,” Opt. Commun.141(3-4), 173–179 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Ray, S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, and P. K. Datta, “Acousto-optic-modulator stabilized low-threshold mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, G. K. Samanta, S. K. Das, and A. Agnesi, “Realization of inverse saturable absorption by intra-cavity third harmonic generation for efficient nonlinear mirror mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Holmgren, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Generation of 2.8 ps pulses by mode-locking a Nd:GdVO4 laser with defocusing cascaded Kerr lensing in periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Express13(14), 5270–5278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2000 (2)

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Larotonda, A. A. Hnilo, and F. P. Diodati, “Diode-pumped self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.183(5-6), 485–491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Couderc, F. Louradour, and A. Barthelemy, “2.8 ps pulses from a mode-locked diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using quadratic polarization switching,” Opt. Commun.166(1-6), 103–111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, and V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(1), 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Buchvarov, S. Saltiel, C. Iglev, and K. Koynov, “Intensity dependent change of polarization state as a result of nonlinear phase shift in type II frequency doubling crystals,” Opt. Commun.141(3-4), 173–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

G. Cerullo, S. D. Silvestri, and V. Magni, “Self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking of a Ti:Sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.19(14), 1040–1042 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Lin and W. F. Hsieh, “Analytical design of symmetrical Kerr-lens mode-locking laser cavities,” Opt. Lett.11, 737–739 (1994).

1993 (4)

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “ABCD matrix analysis of propagation of gaussian beams through Kerr media,” Opt. Commun.96(4-6), 348–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Closed form Gaussian beam analysis of resonators containing a Kerr medium for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun.101(5-6), 365–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Piche and F. Salin, “Self-mode locking of solid-state lasers without apertures,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett.18(1), 13–15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.16(1), 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Stankov, “25ps pulses from a Nd:YAG laser mode-locked by a frequency doubling β-BaB2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(20), 2203–2204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. A. Stankov and J. Jethwa, “A new mode-locking technique using a nonlinear mirror,” Opt. Commun.66(1), 41–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

An, J.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Barthelemy, A.

V. Couderc, F. Louradour, and A. Barthelemy, “2.8 ps pulses from a mode-locked diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using quadratic polarization switching,” Opt. Commun.166(1-6), 103–111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buchvarov, I.

Cerullo, G.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, and V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(1), 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, A. Monguzzi, D. Segala, and V. Magni, “Self-starting mode locking of a cw Nd:YAG laser using cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.20(7), 746–748 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, S. D. Silvestri, and V. Magni, “Self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking of a Ti:Sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.19(14), 1040–1042 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “ABCD matrix analysis of propagation of gaussian beams through Kerr media,” Opt. Commun.96(4-6), 348–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Closed form Gaussian beam analysis of resonators containing a Kerr medium for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun.101(5-6), 365–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chuchumishev, D.

Couderc, V.

V. Couderc, F. Louradour, and A. Barthelemy, “2.8 ps pulses from a mode-locked diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using quadratic polarization switching,” Opt. Commun.166(1-6), 103–111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

A. Ray, S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, and P. K. Datta, “Acousto-optic-modulator stabilized low-threshold mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, G. K. Samanta, S. K. Das, and A. Agnesi, “Realization of inverse saturable absorption by intra-cavity third harmonic generation for efficient nonlinear mirror mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Das, L. Tartara, A. Agnesi, and V. Degiorgio, “Enhancement of stability and efficiency of a nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:YVO4 oscillator by an active Q-switch,” Opt. Express12(17), 4041–4046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Datta, P. K.

A. Ray, S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, and P. K. Datta, “Acousto-optic-modulator stabilized low-threshold mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, G. K. Samanta, S. K. Das, and A. Agnesi, “Realization of inverse saturable absorption by intra-cavity third harmonic generation for efficient nonlinear mirror mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Das, L. Tartara, A. Agnesi, and V. Degiorgio, “Enhancement of stability and efficiency of a nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:YVO4 oscillator by an active Q-switch,” Opt. Express12(17), 4041–4046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, A. Monguzzi, D. Segala, and V. Magni, “Self-starting mode locking of a cw Nd:YAG laser using cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.20(7), 746–748 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Closed form Gaussian beam analysis of resonators containing a Kerr medium for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun.101(5-6), 365–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “ABCD matrix analysis of propagation of gaussian beams through Kerr media,” Opt. Commun.96(4-6), 348–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

DeSalvo, R.

Diodati, F. P.

M. A. Larotonda, A. A. Hnilo, and F. P. Diodati, “Diode-pumped self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.183(5-6), 485–491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fries, C.

Guandalini, A.

Hagan, D. J.

Hnilo, A. A.

M. A. Larotonda, A. A. Hnilo, and F. P. Diodati, “Diode-pumped self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.183(5-6), 485–491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holmgren, S. J.

Hsieh, W. F.

K. H. Lin and W. F. Hsieh, “Analytical design of symmetrical Kerr-lens mode-locking laser cavities,” Opt. Lett.11, 737–739 (1994).

Iglev, C.

I. Buchvarov, S. Saltiel, C. Iglev, and K. Koynov, “Intensity dependent change of polarization state as a result of nonlinear phase shift in type II frequency doubling crystals,” Opt. Commun.141(3-4), 173–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iliev, H.

Ippen, E. P.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jethwa, J.

K. A. Stankov and J. Jethwa, “A new mode-locking technique using a nonlinear mirror,” Opt. Commun.66(1), 41–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kean, P. N.

Koynov, K.

I. Buchvarov, S. Saltiel, C. Iglev, and K. Koynov, “Intensity dependent change of polarization state as a result of nonlinear phase shift in type II frequency doubling crystals,” Opt. Commun.141(3-4), 173–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurimura, S.

L’huillier, J. A.

Larotonda, M. A.

M. A. Larotonda, A. A. Hnilo, and F. P. Diodati, “Diode-pumped self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.183(5-6), 485–491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Li, D.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. H.

K. H. Lin and W. F. Hsieh, “Analytical design of symmetrical Kerr-lens mode-locking laser cavities,” Opt. Lett.11, 737–739 (1994).

Louradour, F.

V. Couderc, F. Louradour, and A. Barthelemy, “2.8 ps pulses from a mode-locked diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using quadratic polarization switching,” Opt. Commun.166(1-6), 103–111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Magni, V.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, and V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(1), 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, A. Monguzzi, D. Segala, and V. Magni, “Self-starting mode locking of a cw Nd:YAG laser using cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.20(7), 746–748 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, S. D. Silvestri, and V. Magni, “Self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking of a Ti:Sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.19(14), 1040–1042 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Closed form Gaussian beam analysis of resonators containing a Kerr medium for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun.101(5-6), 365–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “ABCD matrix analysis of propagation of gaussian beams through Kerr media,” Opt. Commun.96(4-6), 348–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monguzzi, A.

Mukhopadhyay, S.

A. Ray, S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, and P. K. Datta, “Acousto-optic-modulator stabilized low-threshold mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, G. K. Samanta, S. K. Das, and A. Agnesi, “Realization of inverse saturable absorption by intra-cavity third harmonic generation for efficient nonlinear mirror mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Das, L. Tartara, A. Agnesi, and V. Degiorgio, “Enhancement of stability and efficiency of a nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:YVO4 oscillator by an active Q-switch,” Opt. Express12(17), 4041–4046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Petrov, V.

Piche, M.

Qiao, W.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ray, A.

A. Ray, S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, and P. K. Datta, “Acousto-optic-modulator stabilized low-threshold mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Saltiel, S.

I. Buchvarov, S. Saltiel, C. Iglev, and K. Koynov, “Intensity dependent change of polarization state as a result of nonlinear phase shift in type II frequency doubling crystals,” Opt. Commun.141(3-4), 173–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samanta, G. K.

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, G. K. Samanta, S. K. Das, and A. Agnesi, “Realization of inverse saturable absorption by intra-cavity third harmonic generation for efficient nonlinear mirror mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sani, E.

Schäfer, C.

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Segala, D.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Sibbett, W.

Silvestri, S. D.

Spence, D. E.

Stankov, K. A.

K. A. Stankov, “25ps pulses from a Nd:YAG laser mode-locked by a frequency doubling β-BaB2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(20), 2203–2204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Stankov and J. Jethwa, “A new mode-locking technique using a nonlinear mirror,” Opt. Commun.66(1), 41–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, G. I.

Tartara, L.

Theobald, C.

Thoen, E. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomaselli, A.

Toncelli, A.

Tonelli, M.

Van Stryland, E.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vanherzeele, H.

Wang, J.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. J.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, and V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(1), 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. Z.

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Ray, S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, and P. K. Datta, “Acousto-optic-modulator stabilized low-threshold mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, G. K. Samanta, S. K. Das, and A. Agnesi, “Realization of inverse saturable absorption by intra-cavity third harmonic generation for efficient nonlinear mirror mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Stankov, “25ps pulses from a Nd:YAG laser mode-locked by a frequency doubling β-BaB2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(20), 2203–2204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Q. Electron. (1)

M. Li, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Q. Electron.44(3), 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the soft aperture CSM laser: LDA, laser diode array; L1 and L2 focusing lenses; RM, rear mirror; M1 and M2, folding mirrors; OC, output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Non collinear SHG intensity autocorrelation trace, Dots: experimental data. Continuous line: sech2 fit. (b) Optical spectrum of the pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser output power versus pump power for mode-locked operation. The open (-□-) and filled squares (-■-) are the measured data for 1064 nm and 532 nm respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Oscilloscope trace of mode-locked pulse train in ns (a) and in µs (b) time scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nonlinear phase shift (ΔΦNL), in color code (in units of π) as a function of crystal phase mismatch, ΔkL (in units of π) and intracavity FW intensity at KTP crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of mode size at the laser gain medium as a function of intracavity peak power for (i) ΔkL = -π/2 ; blue dashed, (ii) ΔkL = -π ; black solid, and (iii) ΔkL = −2π ; red doted. Low power variation of the same mode size, when the pulse formation starts is shown in the inset.

Equations (7)

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d A SH dz = iω n 2ω c d eff A FW 2 exp(iΔkz)
d A FW dz = iω 2 n ω c d eff A SH A FW exp(iΔkz)
d A SH dξ =i γ S A F 2 exp(iΔkLξ)
d A FW dξ =i γ F A SH A FW exp(iΔkLξ)
where γ S = ω n SH c d eff L A FW (0) and γ F = ω 2 n FW c d eff L A FW (0)
n= n FW + n 2 eff I
Δ Φ NL 2 = ω c n 2 eff LI

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