Abstract

The enhanced recombination and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the multi-color metal-oxide-semiconductor light-emitting diodes (MOSLEDs) made on the SiOx film with buried Si quantum dots (Si-QDs) grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition are demonstrated. By shrinking Si-QD size from 4.2 to 1.8 nm with increasing RF plasma power from 20 to 50 W, these MOSLEDs enhance the maximal electroluminescent (EL) power from 0.1 to 0.7 μW. This is mainly attributed to the enhanced recombination rate by enlarging the overlap between electron and hole wave-functions. As evidence, the photoluminescent lifetime is significantly shortened from 5 µs to 0.31µs due to the enhanced direct recombination in smaller Si-QDs. The corresponding power-current slope and EQE are observed to increase from 0.09 to 5.7 mW/A and from 1.9 × 10−5 to 2.4%, respectively. The EL enhancement originates from shorter wavelength and stronger carrier confinement within Si-QDs with smaller size, as confirmed by the increased barrier height at the ITO/SiOx:Si-QD interface from 1.05 to 3.62 eV. The smaller and denser Si-QDs result in a current endurance to operate the MOSLED at breakdown edge with highest power conversion efficiency, thus providing a maximal blue-light EL power at 0.7 μW with the highest EQE of 2.4%.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparing retention and recombination of electrically injected carriers in Si quantum dots embedded in Si-rich SiNx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 243501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. H. Fowler and L. Nordheim, “Electron emission in intense electric fields,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character119(781), 173–181 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  46. C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J.4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  47. E. P. O’Reilly and M. Silver, “Temperature sensitivity and high temperature operation of long wavelength semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(24), 3318–3320 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  48. L. L. Goddard, S. R. Bank, M. A. Wistey, H. B. Yuen, Z. Rao, and J. S. Harris., “Recombination, gain, band structure, efficiency, and reliability of 1.5-µm GaInNAsSb/GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

P. D. Nguyen, D. M. Kepaptsoglou, Q. M. Ramasse, and A. Olsen, “Direct observation of quantum confinement of Si nanocrystals in Si-rich nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B85(8), 085315 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of SiNx light emitting devices through a rough Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Si-rich SixC1-x light-emitting diodes with buried Si quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J.4(5), 1762–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Electrically tunable electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express20(16), 17359–17366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

K.-Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett.11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Lai, C.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Multicolor ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al light emitting diodes with improved emission efficiency by small Si quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(5), 698–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparing retention and recombination of electrically injected carriers in Si quantum dots embedded in Si-rich SiNx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 243501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Z. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, W. P. Goh, and S. Fung, “Influence of implantation dose on electroluminescence from Si-implanted silicon nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 239–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, F. Gygi, and G. Galli, “Tailored nanoheterojunctions for optimized light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 206805 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Pai, C.-T. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 263514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. D. A. M. de Boer, D. Timmerman, K. Dohnalová, I. N. Yassievich, H. Zhang, W. J. Buma, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Red spectral shift and enhanced quantum efficiency in phonon-free photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(12), 878–884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Lien, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Si nano-dots and nano-pyramids dependent light emission and charge accumulation in ITO/SiOx/p-Si MOS diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(1), 121–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Lai, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Plasma power controlled deposition of SiOx with manipulated Si Quantum Dot size for photoluminescent wavelength tailoring,” Opt. Express18(5), 4449–4456 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, X. Zhang, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “Structure and luminescence evolution of annealed Europium-doped silicon oxides films,” Opt. Express18(26), 27191–27196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

E. Sun, F.-H. Su, Y.-T. Shih, H.-L. Tsai, C.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wu, J.-R. Yang, and M.-J. Chen, “An efficient Si light-emitting diode based on an n-ZnO/SiO2-Si nanocrystals-SiO2/p-Si heterostructure,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-L. Hsu, Y.-H. Pai, F.-S. Meng, C.-W. Liu, and G.-R. Lin, “Nanograin crystalline transformation enhanced UV transparency of annealing refined indium tin oxide film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Perálvarez, J. Barreto, J. Carreras, A. Morales, D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, C. Domínguez, and B. Garrido, “Si-nanocrystal-based LEDs fabricated by ion implantation and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology20(40), 405201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Pai, and C.-T. Lin, “Microwatt MOSLED using SiOx with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nano-pillar array,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Chakraborty, S. Chattopadhyay, C. K. Sarkar, and C. Pramanik, “Tunneling current at the interface of silicon and silicon dioxide partly embedded with silicon nanocrystals in metal oxide semiconductor structures,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 024315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys.101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, and C.-C. Kuo, “Anomalous microphotoluminescence of high-aspect-ratio Si nanopillars formatted by dry-etching Si substrate with self-aggregated Ni nanodot mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 143102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Chakraborty, S. Chattopadhyay, C. K. Sarkar, and C. Pramanik, “Tunneling current at the interface of silicon and silicon dioxide partly embedded with silicon nanocrystals in metal oxide semiconductor structures,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 024315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C.-J. Lin, C. K. Lee, E. W. G. Diau, and G.-R. Lin, “Time-resolved photoluminescence analysis of multidose Si-ion-implanted SiO2,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(2), E25–E32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Light emission from hydrogenated and unhydrogenated Si-nanocrystal/Si dioxide composites based on PECVD-grown Si-rich Si oxide films,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1561–1569 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, T. Roschuk, M. J. Flynn, and P. Mascher, “X-ray-diffraction study of crystalline Si nanocluster formation in annealed silicon-rich silicon oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.99(2), 023518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Goddard, S. R. Bank, M. A. Wistey, H. B. Yuen, Z. Rao, and J. S. Harris., “Recombination, gain, band structure, efficiency, and reliability of 1.5-µm GaInNAsSb/GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, and K.-C. Yu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence and capacitance-voltage analysis of the neutral vacancy defect in silicon implanted SiO2 on silicon substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.96(5), 3025–3027 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, F. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence properties of light emitting devices based on silicon nanocrystals,” Phys. E16(3-4), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Quantum Confinement in Amorphous Silicon Quantum Dots Embedded in Silicon Nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys.88(7), 4319–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Nishimura, Y. Nagao, and N. Ikeda, “High external quantum efficiency of electroluminescence from photoanodized porous silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2 No. 3B), L303–L305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. Lalic and J. Linnros, “Characterization of a porous silicon diode with efficient and tunable electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.80(10), 5971–5977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Linnros and N. Lalic, “High quantum efficiency for a porous silicon light emitting diode under pulsed operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(22), 3048–3050 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. Koch, V. Petrova-Koch, and T. Muschik, “The luminescence of porous Si: the case for the surface state mechanism,” J. Lumin.57(1-6), 271–281 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Prokes, “Light emission in thermally oxidized porous silicon: Evidence for oxide-related luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(25), 3244–3246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Delley and E. F. Steigmeier, “Quantum confinement in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter47(3), 1397–1400 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. O’Reilly and M. Silver, “Temperature sensitivity and high temperature operation of long wavelength semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(24), 3318–3320 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982

Z. A. Weinberg, “On tunneling in metal-oxide-silicon structures,” J. Appl. Phys.53(7), 5052–5056 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1969

M. Lenzlinger and E. H. Snow, “Fowler-Nordheim tunneling into thermally grown SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.40(1), 278–283 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

E. H. Snow, “Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in SiO2 films,” Solid State Commun.5(10), 813–815 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1928

R. H. Fowler and L. Nordheim, “Electron emission in intense electric fields,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character119(781), 173–181 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Anopchenko, A.

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, R.

K.-Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett.11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bank, S. R.

L. L. Goddard, S. R. Bank, M. A. Wistey, H. B. Yuen, Z. Rao, and J. S. Harris., “Recombination, gain, band structure, efficiency, and reliability of 1.5-µm GaInNAsSb/GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barreto, J.

M. Perálvarez, J. Barreto, J. Carreras, A. Morales, D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, C. Domínguez, and B. Garrido, “Si-nanocrystal-based LEDs fabricated by ion implantation and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology20(40), 405201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellutti, P.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Pai, and C.-T. Lin, “Microwatt MOSLED using SiOx with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nano-pillar array,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of a MOSLED made by SiOx film with buried Si-QDs (b) HRTEM image for the 1.7 ± 0.2 nm large Si-QDs embedded in the SiOx film grown at an RF plasma power of 50 W. (c) Size distribution of Si-QDs embedded in the SiOx film grown at an RF plasma power of 50 W.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The F-N plot of ln(JG/E2) dependent electric field as a function of RF power with their SiOx annealing at 2.5 (upper) and 90 min (lower). (b) Barrier height (black line) and turn-on electric field (blue line) of the MOSLEDs with 2.5-min (square patterns with linked dashed line) and 90-min (circle patterns with linked solid line) annealed SiOx samples grown at different RF plasma powers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The band diagram of MOSLEDs grown at an RF plasma power of 50 W. Inset: The variations on the band diagram of the MOSLEDs grown at different RF plasma power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The experimental (solid line) and fitted (dash line) TRPL traces of the (a) 2.5-min and (b) 90-min annealed SiOx films with buried Si-QDs. (c) TRPL lifetime of the 2.5-min and 90-min annealed SiOx film with buried Si-QDs as a function of RF plasma power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EQE (solid line) and EL power (dashed line) of MOSLEDs with 2.5-min (left) and 90-min (right) annealed SiOx samples grown at different RF plasma powers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The Z-parameter vs. biased current of MOSLEDs with (a) 2.5-min and (b) 90-min annealed SiOx samples grown at different RF plasma powers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

EL spectra of MOSLEDs with SiOx grown at RF plasma powers of (a) 20 W, (b) 30 W, (c) 40 W and (d) 50 W under a biased current density of 0.1 mA/cm2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized EL spectra obtained under different biased currents for the MOSLED with SiOx film grown at an RF plasma power of 40 W. Inset: the EL intensity as a function of biased current.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

EL patterns (under a biased current density of 0.1 mA/cm2) of MOSLEDs with 2.5-min (upper) and 90-min (lower) annealed SiOx samples grown by changing RF plasma power from 20 to 50 W (from left to right).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J FN = 4πq m 0 η 3 E x e 2 x ti x tx ( 2 m ox η 2 ) 1/2 [ (qΨ(x) E x ) 1/2 ]dx d E x E x + f( E x ,T)dE = q 3 ( m 0 / m ox ) 8πh ϕ B E 2 exp( 8π 2 m ox ϕ B 3 3qhE ) =1.54× 10 6 ( m 0 / m ox ) ϕ B E 2 exp(6.83× 10 7 2( m ox / m 0 )/ ϕ B 3 E ),
I(t)= A n e ( t τ n ) I(t)=I(0) e ( t τ ) β ,
η ext = λ 1 λ 2 t 0 t 1 P EL (t,λ) I(t) e hν dtdλ = λ 1 λ 2 P EL (λ) λdλ 1.24 I bias ,
Z ln(I) ln( P 0.5 ) .

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