Abstract

This paper proposes a high precision method for nanoparticle counting and sizing using a microring resonator-waveguide system that contains a flow-through nanopore. Theoretical analysis is carried out based on the coupled-mode theory, showing that when the nanoparticle passes the nanopore a temporal pulse signal can be detected and that the peak amplitude depends linearly on the nanoparticle volume. It is estimated that a nanoparticle of sub-10 nm in size may be detectable.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express19(17), 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles usingwhispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

S. Wang, K. Broderick, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Strong coupling between on chip notched ring resonator and nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haddadpour and Y. Yi, “Metallic nanoparticle on micro ring resonator for bio optical detection and sensing,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 378–384 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, “Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection using a portable whispering gallery mode biosensor driven by a periodically poled lithium-niobate frequency doubled distributed feedback laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Anderson, W.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, “Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection using a portable whispering gallery mode biosensor driven by a periodically poled lithium-niobate frequency doubled distributed feedback laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, J. R.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, A.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, K.

S. Wang, K. Broderick, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Strong coupling between on chip notched ring resonator and nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Broom, M. F.

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carson, L.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express19(17), 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantham, V. R.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Divin, C.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glossop, B.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groenewegen, L.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.-M.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haddadpour, A.

Haus, H. A.

He, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles usingwhispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express19(17), 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herchak, S.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holler, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles usingwhispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolchenko, V.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kozak, D.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, J.-P.

Lee, C.-Y.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

Lee, H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

Liu, L.

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishida, Y.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, “Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection using a portable whispering gallery mode biosensor driven by a periodically poled lithium-niobate frequency doubled distributed feedback laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, T. B.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oveys, H.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Özdemir, S. K.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles usingwhispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express19(17), 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajmangal, R.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, “Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection using a portable whispering gallery mode biosensor driven by a periodically poled lithium-niobate frequency doubled distributed feedback laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, G. S.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, L.

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, “Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection using a portable whispering gallery mode biosensor driven by a periodically poled lithium-niobate frequency doubled distributed feedback laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, H.

S. Wang, K. Broderick, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Strong coupling between on chip notched ring resonator and nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T. L.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, T. P.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trau, M.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, R.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, Z.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, K. Broderick, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Strong coupling between on chip notched ring resonator and nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willmott, G.

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y.-F.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles usingwhispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express19(17), 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. Y.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, Y.

S. Wang, K. Broderick, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Strong coupling between on chip notched ring resonator and nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

A. Haddadpour and Y. Yi, “Metallic nanoparticle on micro ring resonator for bio optical detection and sensing,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 378–384 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.-Y.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express19(17), 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles usingwhispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zin, M.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

Znameroski, S.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zourob, M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

R. Vogel, G. Willmott, D. Kozak, G. S. Roberts, W. Anderson, L. Groenewegen, B. Glossop, A. Barnett, A. Turner, and M. Trau, “Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor,” Anal. Chem.83(9), 3499–3506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem.82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.)133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, K. Broderick, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Strong coupling between on chip notched ring resonator and nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles usingwhispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, “Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection using a portable whispering gallery mode biosensor driven by a periodically poled lithium-niobate frequency doubled distributed feedback laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

B. Koch, L. Carson, C.-M. Guo, C.-Y. Lee, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 573–580 (2010).

Small (1)

G. S. Roberts, D. Kozak, W. Anderson, M. F. Broom, R. Vogel, and M. Trau, “Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy,” Small6(23), 2653–2658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic Press, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual illustration of the microring resonator with a flow-through nanopore for nanoparticle counting and sizing. (A) Top view. (B) Side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometries and parameters used in the calculation and simulation. The origin is set to be the location where the nanopore is located (black dot in the figure). (A) Top view. (B) Side view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Normalized power transmission as a function of coupling coefficient κ2 based on Eq. (1). The critical coupling (zero transmission) occurs when κ2 = L. The under-coupling regime refers to κ2<L. (B) Sc as a function of coupling coefficient κ2 for various ring resonator losses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

E-field distribution of the mode (Ey)11 inside the gap between the ring resonator and the waveguide. Here we assume that the WGM of the ring resonator has the same mode field distribution as a straight waveguide of the same dimension. The squares show the cube-shaped nanoparticle at different locations within the gap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SL as a function of coupling coefficient κ2 for various ring resonator losses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absolute value of 4f/(1-f) as a function of f.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 κ and Δκ for a 100 nm nanoparticle with different gaps

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T= | b 1 | 2 = ( tχ 1tχ ) 2 ,
T= ( κ 2 L κ 2 +L ) 2 ,
ΔT=( T κ 2 )Δ( κ 2 )+( T L )ΔL,
κ= C(z)dz= 2πR γ exp( Δ β 2 R 2 λ 0 )C(0),
C(0)= ω ε 0 ( n RR 2 n M 2 ) w w h h ( E RR y ) * E W y dxdy 2 ( E RR y ) * H RR x dxdy ,
E i y = ω μ 0 β i H i x 1 ω ε 0 n i 2 β i 2 H i x y 2 ω μ 0 β i H i x , i=RR, W
Δ C NP (0)= ω ε 0 ( n NP 2 n Water 2 ) d/2 d/2 D/2d/2 D/2+d/2 ( E RR y ) * E W y dxdy 2 ( E RR y ) * H RR x dxdy
Δκ= d/2 d/2 Δ C NP (0)dz dΔ C NP (0),
Δκ= ω ε 0 ( n NP 2 n Water 2 ) E RR y ( r 0 ) E W y ( r 0 ) d 3 2 ( E RR y ) * H RR x dxdy = k 0 2 2β ( n NP 2 n Water 2 ) E 2 ( r 0 ) d 3 | E RR y | 2 dxdy ,
L s = n Water 2 ε 0 2 E 2 ( r 0 )σ,
σ= 2 π 5 3 d 6 λ 0 4 ( n NP 2 n Water 2 n NP 2 +2 n Water 2 ) 2
ΔL= n Water 2 E 2 ( r 0 )σ n RR 2 | E RR y | 2 dxdy ,
ΔT= S c Δ( κ 2 )+ S L ΔL,
Δ( κ 2 ) ΔL = 3κ π 4 ( n NP 2 +2 n Water 2 ) 2 n NP 2 n Water 2 n RR n Water 2 ( λ 0 d ) 3 .
Δ( κ 2 ) ΔL =1.65κ ( λ 0 d ) 3 ,
ΔT T = Δln(T) Δ( κ 2 ) Δ( κ 2 )=( 1 κ 2 L 1 κ 2 +L )4 κ 2 Δκ κ ,
ΔT T ( 4f 1f ) Δκ κ ,
| ΔT T | κ=0.31834 44 Δκ κ =7.9%,

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