Abstract

Graphene recently emerged as a new two-dimensional material platform with unique optical, thermal and electronic properties. Single- or few-atom-thick graphene flakes can potentially be utilized to form structured bulk composites that further enrich these properties and enable a broad range of new applications. Here we describe optical manipulation of self-aligned colloidal graphene flakes in thermotropic liquid crystals of nematic and cholesteric types. Three-dimensional rotational and translational manipulation of graphene flakes by means of holographic optical tweezers allows for non-contact spatial patterning of graphene, control of liquid crystal defects, and low-power optical realignment of the liquid crystal director using these flakes. Potential applications include optically- and electrically-controlled reconfigurable liquid crystalline dispersions of spontaneously aligning colloidal graphene flakes and new electro-optic devices with graphene-based interconnected transparent electrodes at surfaces and in the bulk of liquid crystals.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (4)

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

A. Martinez, T. Lee, T. Asavei, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional complex-shaped photopolymerized microparticles at liquid crystal interfaces,” Soft Matter8(8), 2432–2437 (2012).

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 29–34 (2012).

R. P. Trivedi, I. I. Klevets, B. I. Senyuk, T. Lee, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Reconfigurable interactions and three-dimensional patterning of colloidal particles and defects in lamellar soft media,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(13), 4744–4749 (2012).

2011 (6)

Q. Liu, T. Asavei, T. Lee, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Measurement of viscosity of lyotropic liquid crystals by means of rotating laser-trapped microparticles,” Opt. Express19(25), 25134–25143 (2011).

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. P. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(13), 5188–5192 (2011).

D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engström, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt.13(4), 044001 (2011).

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).

J. S. Evans, C. Beier, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Alignment of high-aspect ratio colloidal gold nanoplatelets in nematic liquid crsytals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(3), 033535 (2011).

2010 (5)

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

G. M. Koenig, I.-H. Lin, and N. L. Abbott, “Chemoresponsive assemblies of microparticles at liquid crystalline interfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(9), 3998–4003 (2010).

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

2009 (4)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Manipulation of defect structures and colloidal chains in liquid crystals by means of photochemical reactions of azobenzene compounds,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.334, 155–159 (2009).

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

S. H. Simpson, D. C. Benito, and S. Hanna, “Polarization-induced torque in optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043408 (2007).

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 929–938 (2007).

2006 (2)

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Measurement of the total optical angular momentum transfer in optical tweezers,” Opt. Express14, 6963 (2006).

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(2), 249–251 (2001).

2000 (1)

Y. Gu and N. L. Abbott, “Observation of saturn-ring defects around solid microspheres in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(22), 4719–4722 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Science283(5399), 209–212 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics57(1), 626–637 (1998).

1997 (1)

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).

Abbott, N. L.

G. M. Koenig, I.-H. Lin, and N. L. Abbott, “Chemoresponsive assemblies of microparticles at liquid crystalline interfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(9), 3998–4003 (2010).

Y. Gu and N. L. Abbott, “Observation of saturn-ring defects around solid microspheres in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(22), 4719–4722 (2000).

Ackerman, P.

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

Alexander, G. P.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. P. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(13), 5188–5192 (2011).

Asavei, T.

A. Martinez, T. Lee, T. Asavei, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional complex-shaped photopolymerized microparticles at liquid crystal interfaces,” Soft Matter8(8), 2432–2437 (2012).

Q. Liu, T. Asavei, T. Lee, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Measurement of viscosity of lyotropic liquid crystals by means of rotating laser-trapped microparticles,” Opt. Express19(25), 25134–25143 (2011).

Beier, C.

J. S. Evans, C. Beier, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Alignment of high-aspect ratio colloidal gold nanoplatelets in nematic liquid crsytals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(3), 033535 (2011).

Benito, D. C.

S. H. Simpson, D. C. Benito, and S. Hanna, “Polarization-induced torque in optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043408 (2007).

Bertness, K. A.

D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

Bishop, A. I.

Blake, P.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

Bonin, K. D.

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

Borghese, F.

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

Brimicombe, P. D.

Y. Yang, P. D. Brimicombe, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, M. Osipov, and H. F. Gleeson, “Continuously rotating chiral liquid crystal droplets in a linearly polarized laser trap,” Opt. Express16(10), 6877–6882 (2008).

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

Calogero, G.

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

Chen, Y.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

Chen, Y. P.

Crawford, G. P.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 929–938 (2007).

Cui, Y.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

Denti, P.

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

Dickinson, M. R.

Dikin, D. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Dommett, G. H. B.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

Engström, D.

D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engström, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt.13(4), 044001 (2011).

Evans, J. S.

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

J. S. Evans, C. Beier, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Alignment of high-aspect ratio colloidal gold nanoplatelets in nematic liquid crsytals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(3), 033535 (2011).

Ferrari, A. C.

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(2), 249–251 (2001).

Gardner, D.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

Geim, A. K.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

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Y. Yang, P. D. Brimicombe, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, M. Osipov, and H. F. Gleeson, “Continuously rotating chiral liquid crystal droplets in a linearly polarized laser trap,” Opt. Express16(10), 6877–6882 (2008).

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

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D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

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O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

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S. H. Simpson, D. C. Benito, and S. Hanna, “Polarization-induced torque in optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043408 (2007).

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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).

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Q. Liu, T. Asavei, T. Lee, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Measurement of viscosity of lyotropic liquid crystals by means of rotating laser-trapped microparticles,” Opt. Express19(25), 25134–25143 (2011).

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

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Hill, E. W.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

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O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

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S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 929–938 (2007).

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D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 29–34 (2012).

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P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

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M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

Jones, P. H.

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

Jung, H.-T.

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 29–34 (2012).

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 29–34 (2012).

Kim, Y. H.

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 29–34 (2012).

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R. P. Trivedi, I. I. Klevets, B. I. Senyuk, T. Lee, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Reconfigurable interactions and three-dimensional patterning of colloidal particles and defects in lamellar soft media,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(13), 4744–4749 (2012).

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G. M. Koenig, I.-H. Lin, and N. L. Abbott, “Chemoresponsive assemblies of microparticles at liquid crystalline interfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(9), 3998–4003 (2010).

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S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Kourmanov, B.

Lapointe, C. P.

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).

Lee, B.

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

Lee, T.

A. Martinez, T. Lee, T. Asavei, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional complex-shaped photopolymerized microparticles at liquid crystal interfaces,” Soft Matter8(8), 2432–2437 (2012).

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

R. P. Trivedi, I. I. Klevets, B. I. Senyuk, T. Lee, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Reconfigurable interactions and three-dimensional patterning of colloidal particles and defects in lamellar soft media,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(13), 4744–4749 (2012).

Q. Liu, T. Asavei, T. Lee, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Measurement of viscosity of lyotropic liquid crystals by means of rotating laser-trapped microparticles,” Opt. Express19(25), 25134–25143 (2011).

Li, X.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

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G. M. Koenig, I.-H. Lin, and N. L. Abbott, “Chemoresponsive assemblies of microparticles at liquid crystalline interfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(9), 3998–4003 (2010).

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Q. Liu, T. Asavei, T. Lee, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Measurement of viscosity of lyotropic liquid crystals by means of rotating laser-trapped microparticles,” Opt. Express19(25), 25134–25143 (2011).

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

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M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Science283(5399), 209–212 (1999).

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).

Macfarlane, R. J.

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

Manna, P.

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

Maragó, O. M.

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, T. Lee, T. Asavei, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional complex-shaped photopolymerized microparticles at liquid crystal interfaces,” Soft Matter8(8), 2432–2437 (2012).

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).

Mason, T. G.

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).

Mireles, H. C.

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).

Mirkin, C. A.

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

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P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

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P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

Nguyen, S. T.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

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O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

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Nolte, D. D.

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

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P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(2), 249–251 (2001).

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Palmisano, F.

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

Persson, M.

D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

Piner, R. D.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Ponomarenko, L. A.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

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M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Science283(5399), 209–212 (1999).

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics57(1), 626–637 (1998).

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).

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O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

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M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Science283(5399), 209–212 (1999).

Rana, F.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

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M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. P. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(13), 5188–5192 (2011).

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Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

Ruoff, R. S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Saija, R.

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

Schedin, F.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

Senesi, A. J.

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

Senyuk, B.

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

Senyuk, B. I.

R. P. Trivedi, I. I. Klevets, B. I. Senyuk, T. Lee, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Reconfigurable interactions and three-dimensional patterning of colloidal particles and defects in lamellar soft media,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(13), 4744–4749 (2012).

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

Simpson, S. H.

S. H. Simpson, D. C. Benito, and S. Hanna, “Polarization-induced torque in optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043408 (2007).

Smalyukh, I. I.

R. P. Trivedi, I. I. Klevets, B. I. Senyuk, T. Lee, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Reconfigurable interactions and three-dimensional patterning of colloidal particles and defects in lamellar soft media,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(13), 4744–4749 (2012).

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

A. Martinez, T. Lee, T. Asavei, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional complex-shaped photopolymerized microparticles at liquid crystal interfaces,” Soft Matter8(8), 2432–2437 (2012).

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engström, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt.13(4), 044001 (2011).

D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).

J. S. Evans, C. Beier, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Alignment of high-aspect ratio colloidal gold nanoplatelets in nematic liquid crsytals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(3), 033535 (2011).

Q. Liu, T. Asavei, T. Lee, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Measurement of viscosity of lyotropic liquid crystals by means of rotating laser-trapped microparticles,” Opt. Express19(25), 25134–25143 (2011).

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).

Spencer, M. G.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

Stach, E. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Stankovich, S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Stark, H.

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).

Strait, J.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).

Tabe, Y.

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Manipulation of defect structures and colloidal chains in liquid crystals by means of photochemical reactions of azobenzene compounds,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.334, 155–159 (2009).

Trivedi, R. P.

R. P. Trivedi, I. I. Klevets, B. I. Senyuk, T. Lee, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Reconfigurable interactions and three-dimensional patterning of colloidal particles and defects in lamellar soft media,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(13), 4744–4749 (2012).

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engström, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt.13(4), 044001 (2011).

D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

van de Lagemaat, J.

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

Veksler, D.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

Vigderman, L.

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

Walker, T. G.

Wang, X.

Weitz, D. A.

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Science283(5399), 209–212 (1999).

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics57(1), 626–637 (1998).

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).

Woltman, S. J.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 929–938 (2007).

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Manipulation of defect structures and colloidal chains in liquid crystals by means of photochemical reactions of azobenzene compounds,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.334, 155–159 (2009).

Yang, Y.

Yeomans, J. M.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. P. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(13), 5188–5192 (2011).

Yokoyama, H.

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Manipulation of defect structures and colloidal chains in liquid crystals by means of photochemical reactions of azobenzene compounds,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.334, 155–159 (2009).

Young, K. L.

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

Zapotocky, M.

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Science283(5399), 209–212 (1999).

Zhang, J.

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

Zimney, E. J.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Zubarev, E. R.

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

Žumer, S. P.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. P. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(13), 5188–5192 (2011).

ACS Nano (2)

O. M. Maragó, F. Bonaccorso, R. Saija, G. Privitera, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, G. Calogero, P. H. Jones, F. Borghese, P. Denti, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Brownian motion of graphene,” ACS Nano4(12), 7515–7523 (2010).

P. H. Jones, F. Palmisano, F. Bonaccorso, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Calogero, A. C. Ferrari, and O. M. Maragó, “Rotation detection in light-driven nanorotors,” ACS Nano3(10), 3077–3084 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(2), 249–251 (2001).

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. (1)

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Manipulation of defect structures and colloidal chains in liquid crystals by means of photochemical reactions of azobenzene compounds,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.334, 155–159 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. S. Evans, C. Beier, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Alignment of high-aspect ratio colloidal gold nanoplatelets in nematic liquid crsytals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(3), 033535 (2011).

J. Opt. (1)

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engström, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt.13(4), 044001 (2011).

Nano Lett. (3)

B. Senyuk, J. S. Evans, P. Ackerman, T. Lee, P. Manna, L. Vigderman, E. R. Zubarev, J. van de Lagemaat, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals,” Nano Lett.12(2), 955–963 (2012).

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 929–938 (2007).

M. R. Jones, R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, J. Zhang, K. L. Young, A. J. Senesi, and C. A. Mirkin, “DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks,” Nat. Mater.9(11), 913–917 (2010).

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 29–34 (2012).

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).

Nature (1)

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. H. Simpson, D. C. Benito, and S. Hanna, “Polarization-induced torque in optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043408 (2007).

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics57(1), 626–637 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Gu and N. L. Abbott, “Observation of saturn-ring defects around solid microspheres in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(22), 4719–4722 (2000).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (4)

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).

G. M. Koenig, I.-H. Lin, and N. L. Abbott, “Chemoresponsive assemblies of microparticles at liquid crystalline interfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(9), 3998–4003 (2010).

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. P. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(13), 5188–5192 (2011).

R. P. Trivedi, I. I. Klevets, B. I. Senyuk, T. Lee, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Reconfigurable interactions and three-dimensional patterning of colloidal particles and defects in lamellar soft media,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(13), 4744–4749 (2012).

Science (4)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Science283(5399), 209–212 (1999).

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).

Soft Matter (2)

D. Engström, R. P. Trivedi, M. Persson, K. A. Bertness, M. Goksör, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional imaging of liquid crystal structures and defects by means of holographic manipulation of colloidal nanowires with faceted sidewalls,” Soft Matter7(13), 6304–6312 (2011).

A. Martinez, T. Lee, T. Asavei, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three-dimensional complex-shaped photopolymerized microparticles at liquid crystal interfaces,” Soft Matter8(8), 2432–2437 (2012).

Other (2)

P. M. Chaikin and T. C. Lubensky, Principles of Condensed Matter Physics (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

B. Senyuk, Q. Liu, S. He, R. D. Kamien, R.B. Kusner, T. C. Lubensky, and I. I. Smalyukh. “Topological colloids.” doi:10.1038/nature11710 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical manipulation of graphene flakes in liquid crystals. (a) An optical micrograph of typical graphene flakes in immersion oil produced from cleaved highly ordered graphite; the folds and changes in layer thickness are visible as changes in optical transmission through the flakes. (b),(c) Computer-directed manipulation of an asymmetric graphene flake by laser tweezers in a cholesteric LC demonstrated by moving the flake along a time-coded trajectory with the flake shown in (b) initial and (c) final positions; the used laser power is 2.3 mW. (d-f) Optical micrographs showing (d) a graphene flake entrapped in a dislocation in a cholesteric LC that is optically moved along the time-coded trajectory from (e) initial to (f) final position; the used laser power is about 1mW. (g),(h) FCPM cross sections of a planar-aligned cholesteric cell with a layer dislocation without (g) and with (h) a graphene flake entrapped in the dislocation. The equilibrium cholesteric pitch is about 5 μm. The color-coded time scales in the insets of (b,e) show the elapsed time in seconds. The helical axis χ, crossed polarizer (P), analyzer (A), and coordinate axes are marked using red arrows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical translation of a graphene flake across a cholesteric layered structure. (a),(b),(c),(d) Optical micrographs showing an ascending graphene flake suspended in a cholesteric LC when pushed by a defocused laser trap of power ~1 mW, with the focus originally located about 10 μm above the flake. (e) A schematic representation of n(r) in a cholesteric structure, with the black arrows indicating flake positions along the helical axis χ shown by the blue double arrow (perpendicular to cell substrates and rotating n shown by red double arrows). (f),(g) FCPM imaging of the ascent of a graphene flake through the cholesteric layered structure, showing the starting (f) and ending (g) vertical positions of the flake. (h) Vertical position of a graphene flake in a cholesteric with p = 5 μm vs. the azimuthal orientation angle as the flake is moved via rotation and corresponding translation across a 30 μm cell using a laser trap of power ~1mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser-induced spinning of a flake in a nematic LC. (a) Optical PM image of a vertically aligned graphene flake in a 20 μm homeotropic nematic cell. (b),(c),(d) Optical PM micrographs showing realignment and rotation of a graphene flake in a laser trap. When the trap is turned on, a vertically aligned flake (b) flips sideways and spins (c-d). The optical images obtained between crossed polarizers highlight the local distortions in the nematic director caused by the spinning graphene flake. The elapsed time is marked on images. (e) A schematic representation of a graphene flake aligned vertically in a homeotropic cell corresponding to the image shown in (a). (f) A schematic representation of a spinning graphene flake and director distortions corresponding to images (c-d); the arrow indicates the spinning direction around the axis normal to the cell substrates. (g) Azimuthal orientation angle of the flake vs. time corresponding to images shown in (c) and (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser-induced spinning of flakes in a cholesteric LC. (a) Azimuthal orientation angle of a flake vs. time for different laser trap powers. The inset shows a normalized probability distribution P of measured rotation rates at the laser trap power of W = 2.4 mW. (b) Rotation rate vs. laser power for different graphene flakes and trap polarizations. The blue and red diamonds show experimental rotation rates vs. laser power for linearly polarized trapping beam and for the same flake but when it is folded and oriented differently with respect to the beam axis (shown in the insets). The purple and green diamonds show rotation rates for a flake trapped by a laser beam with linear (purple) and circular (green) polarizations. Best linear fits of experimental data are shown by solid black lines.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material parameters of the used nematic LCs.

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