Abstract

We designed a compact, low-loss and wavelength insensitive Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide using finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and particle swarm optimization (PSO), and fabricated the device in a 248 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process. Measured average insertion loss is 0.28 ± 0.02 dB, uniform across an 8-inch wafer. The device footprint is less than 1.2 μm x 2 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than typical multimode interferometers (MMIs) and directional couplers.

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics manufacturing,” Opt. Express18(23), 23598–23607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 585–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Z. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Xia, S. Chen, and J. Yu, “1 x 8 cascaded multimode interference splitter in silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5085–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnectis,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.52(2), 397–407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, Y. X. Zhuang, A. Harpøth, M. Thorhauge, M. Kristensen, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, and S. Beckx, “Ultralow-loss 3-dB photonic crystal waveguide splitter,” Opt. Lett.29(14), 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

Arakawa, Y.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 585–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayazi, A.

Baba, T.

H. C. Nguyen, S. Hashimoto, M. Shinkawa, and T. Baba, “Compact and fast photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express20(20), 22465–22474 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours in silicon photonics,” Nature6, 207–208 (2012).

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Beckx, S.

Bessette, J. T.

Bogaerts, W.

Borel, P. I.

Brimont, A.

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Chen, S.

Z. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Xia, S. Chen, and J. Yu, “1 x 8 cascaded multimode interference splitter in silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5085–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 585–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, F.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Danziger, S.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours in silicon photonics,” Nature6, 207–208 (2012).

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dumon, P.

Fan, Z.

Z. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Xia, S. Chen, and J. Yu, “1 x 8 cascaded multimode interference splitter in silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5085–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Frandsen, L. H.

Fukazawa, T.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

Galán, J. V.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

Håkansson, A.

Harpøth, A.

Harris, N. C.

Hashimoto, S.

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours in silicon photonics,” Nature6, 207–208 (2012).

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 585–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

Kimerling, L. C.

Krishnamoorthy, A.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

Kwong, D. L.

Lee, P.

Li, G.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A. E.

Liow, T. Y.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo Guo-Qiang, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours in silicon photonics,” Nature6, 207–208 (2012).

Luo, Y.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Patel, N.

Pinguet, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours in silicon photonics,” Nature6, 207–208 (2012).

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours in silicon photonics,” Nature6, 207–208 (2012).

Rahmat-Samii, Y.

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnectis,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.52(2), 397–407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J.

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnectis,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.52(2), 397–407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

Sanchis, P.

Selvaraja, S. K.

Shinkawa, M.

Shubin, I.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

Streshinsky, M.

Tao, S. H.

Teo, S. H.

Thacker, H.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thorhauge, M.

Trotter, D. C.

Van Thourhout, D.

Villalba, P.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Xia, S. Chen, and J. Yu, “1 x 8 cascaded multimode interference splitter in silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5085–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Wiaux, V.

Wouters, J.

Xia, J.

Z. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Xia, S. Chen, and J. Yu, “1 x 8 cascaded multimode interference splitter in silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5085–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 585–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Z. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Xia, S. Chen, and J. Yu, “1 x 8 cascaded multimode interference splitter in silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5085–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, X.

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, Y. X.

Zortman, W. A.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 585–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnectis,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.52(2), 397–407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Xia, S. Chen, and J. Yu, “1 x 8 cascaded multimode interference splitter in silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5085–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours in silicon photonics,” Nature6, 207–208 (2012).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ .

J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” Proc. IEEE Intern. Conf. Neural Networks (1995).

D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, and R. Baets, “Functional silicon wire waveguides,” Proc. Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (2006).

http://www.opsisfoundry.org, http://www.epixfab.eu .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of device layout. The taper geometry is defined by spline interpolation of w1 to w13. (b) Contour plot of simulated E-field distribution at 1550 nm wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated (a) power transmission and (b) reflection as a function of wavelength, with zoomed-in view in the insets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical measured spectra and corresponding test structure. The inset in (b) gives coupling ratio as a function of wavelength. Parabolic line shape and ripples are determined by grating coupler spectral response and imperfect linear polarization, respectively, as discussed in the main text. Offset in y-axis is from Y-junction insertion loss.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Blue dots are measured peak optical power. Red line is linear fit; (b) Contour plot of measured Y-junction insertion loss across the wafer; and (c) Histogram of 26-reticle test data of measured insertion loss, showing mean value of 0.28 dB and standard deviation of 0.02 dB.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Taper width in µm

Equations (2)

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x n = x n +Δt v n
v n =ω v n + c 1 rand()( p best,n x n )+ c 2 *rand()( g best,n x n )

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