Abstract

An ultra-sensitive and selective quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor platform was demonstrated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This sensor used a state-of-the art 4.61 μm high power, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 10°C as the excitation source. For the R(6) CO absorption line, located at 2169.2 cm−1, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 1.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at atmospheric pressure was achieved with a 1 sec acquisition time and the addition of 2.6% water vapor concentration in the analyzed gas mixture. For the N2O detection, a MDL of 23 ppbv was obtained at an optimum gas pressure of 100 Torr and with the same water vapor content of 2.6%. In both cases the presence of water vapor increases the detected CO and N2O QEPAS signal levels as a result of enhancing the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of both target gases. Allan deviation analyses were performed to investigate the long term performance of the CO and N2O QEPAS sensor systems. For the optimum data acquisition time of 500 sec a MDL of 340 pptv and 4 ppbv was obtained for CO and N2O detection, respectively. To demonstrate reliable and robust operation of the QEPAS sensor a continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels for a period of 5 hours were performed.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (4)

J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chao, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, R. Lewicki, K. Liu, P. R. Buerki, M. J. Weida, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-sensitive carbon monoxide detection by using EC-QCL based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 275–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, and H. Fischer, “Real-time measurements of atmospheric CO using a continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser based spectrometer,” Opt. Express20(7), 7590–7601 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt.50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yuanyuan, L. Wenqing, K. Ruifeng, L. Jianguo, H. Yabai, Z. Yujun, X. Zhenyu, R. Jun, and G. Hui, “Measurements of NO and CO in Shanghai urban atmosphere by using quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19(21), 20224–20232 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 959–966 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Grinde, A. Sanginario, P. A. Ohlckers, G. U. Jensen, and M. M. Mielnik, “Two clover-shaped piezoresistive silicon microphones for photo acoustic gas sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(4), 045010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gray, A. Liu, F. Xie, and C. E. Zah, “Detection of nitric oxide in air with a 5.2 μm distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(22), 23353–23357 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, “High-performance InP-based Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 941–951 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Ravishankara, J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann, “Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century,” Science326(5949), 123–125 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Elia, F. Rizzi, C. Di Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy of volatile chemicals: application to hexamethyldisilazane,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.64(2), 426–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Mitsui, M. Miyamura, A. Matsunami, K. Kitagawa, and N. Arai, “Measuring nitrous oxide in exhaled air by gas chromatography and infrared photoacoustic spectrometry,” Clin. Chem.43(10), 1993–1995 (1997).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen, “Carbon monoxide in the earth’s atmosphere: increasing trend,” Science224(4644), 54–56 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, and M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res.86(C8), 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arai, N.

T. Mitsui, M. Miyamura, A. Matsunami, K. Kitagawa, and N. Arai, “Measuring nitrous oxide in exhaled air by gas chromatography and infrared photoacoustic spectrometry,” Clin. Chem.43(10), 1993–1995 (1997).
[PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, C.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brand, W. A.

J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buerki, P. R.

L. Dong, R. Lewicki, K. Liu, P. R. Buerki, M. J. Weida, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-sensitive carbon monoxide detection by using EC-QCL based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 275–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carras, M.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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X. Chao, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
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L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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A. Elia, F. Rizzi, C. Di Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy of volatile chemicals: application to hexamethyldisilazane,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.64(2), 426–429 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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X. Chao, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B106(4), 987–997 (2012).
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B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 649–654 (2006).
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D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Jeffries, J. B.

X. Chao, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B106(4), 987–997 (2012).
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Jensen, G. U.

C. Grinde, A. Sanginario, P. A. Ohlckers, G. U. Jensen, and M. M. Mielnik, “Two clover-shaped piezoresistive silicon microphones for photo acoustic gas sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(4), 045010 (2010).
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L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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Kosterev, A.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
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Kosterev, A. A.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 mum,” Opt. Express15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
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A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
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C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Lewicki, R.

L. Dong, R. Lewicki, K. Liu, P. R. Buerki, M. J. Weida, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-sensitive carbon monoxide detection by using EC-QCL based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 275–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 mum,” Opt. Express15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Liu, A.

Liu, K.

L. Dong, R. Lewicki, K. Liu, P. R. Buerki, M. J. Weida, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-sensitive carbon monoxide detection by using EC-QCL based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 275–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logan, J. A.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, and M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res.86(C8), 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lugarà, P. M.

A. Elia, F. Rizzi, C. Di Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy of volatile chemicals: application to hexamethyldisilazane,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.64(2), 426–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mammez, D.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manninen, A.

J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mappe-Fogaing, I.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsunami, A.

T. Mitsui, M. Miyamura, A. Matsunami, K. Kitagawa, and N. Arai, “Measuring nitrous oxide in exhaled air by gas chromatography and infrared photoacoustic spectrometry,” Clin. Chem.43(10), 1993–1995 (1997).
[PubMed]

McElroy, M. B.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, and M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res.86(C8), 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt.50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mielnik, M. M.

C. Grinde, A. Sanginario, P. A. Ohlckers, G. U. Jensen, and M. M. Mielnik, “Two clover-shaped piezoresistive silicon microphones for photo acoustic gas sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(4), 045010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitsui, T.

T. Mitsui, M. Miyamura, A. Matsunami, K. Kitagawa, and N. Arai, “Measuring nitrous oxide in exhaled air by gas chromatography and infrared photoacoustic spectrometry,” Clin. Chem.43(10), 1993–1995 (1997).
[PubMed]

Miyamura, M.

T. Mitsui, M. Miyamura, A. Matsunami, K. Kitagawa, and N. Arai, “Measuring nitrous oxide in exhaled air by gas chromatography and infrared photoacoustic spectrometry,” Clin. Chem.43(10), 1993–1995 (1997).
[PubMed]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moeskops, B. W. M.

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohn, J.

J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naus, H.

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt.50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Oehlschlaeger, M. A.

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 959–966 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohlckers, P. A.

C. Grinde, A. Sanginario, P. A. Ohlckers, G. U. Jensen, and M. M. Mielnik, “Two clover-shaped piezoresistive silicon microphones for photo acoustic gas sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(4), 045010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Overby, S.

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parchatka, U.

Parvitte, B.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pohlkötter, A.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Portmann, R. W.

A. R. Ravishankara, J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann, “Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century,” Science326(5949), 123–125 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, M. J.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, and M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res.86(C8), 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, R. A.

M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen, “Carbon monoxide in the earth’s atmosphere: increasing trend,” Science224(4644), 54–56 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravishankara, A. R.

A. R. Ravishankara, J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann, “Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century,” Science326(5949), 123–125 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razeghi, M.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, “High-performance InP-based Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 941–951 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rizzi, F.

A. Elia, F. Rizzi, C. Di Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy of volatile chemicals: application to hexamethyldisilazane,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.64(2), 426–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert, P.

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Sanginario, A.

C. Grinde, A. Sanginario, P. A. Ohlckers, G. U. Jensen, and M. M. Mielnik, “Two clover-shaped piezoresistive silicon microphones for photo acoustic gas sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(4), 045010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

A. Elia, F. Rizzi, C. Di Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy of volatile chemicals: application to hexamethyldisilazane,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.64(2), 426–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schade, W.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231119 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Thomas, X.

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L. Dong, R. Lewicki, K. Liu, P. R. Buerki, M. J. Weida, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-sensitive carbon monoxide detection by using EC-QCL based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 275–283 (2012).
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L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
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A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
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C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
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R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 mum,” Opt. Express15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
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J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
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D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 959–966 (2011).
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Wang, W.

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 959–966 (2011).
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L. Dong, R. Lewicki, K. Liu, P. R. Buerki, M. J. Weida, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-sensitive carbon monoxide detection by using EC-QCL based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 275–283 (2012).
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Willer, U.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
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J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, and M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res.86(C8), 7210–7254 (1981).
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J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).
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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 mum,” Opt. Express15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
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Yabai, H.

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J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
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D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelié, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zéninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

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L. Dong, R. Lewicki, K. Liu, P. R. Buerki, M. J. Weida, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-sensitive carbon monoxide detection by using EC-QCL based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 275–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 959–966 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with watt-level power output,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231119 (2010).
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J. Mohn, B. Tuzson, A. Manninen, N. Yoshida, S. Toyoda, W. A. Brand, and L. Emmenegger, “Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.5(1), 813–838 (2012).
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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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C. Grinde, A. Sanginario, P. A. Ohlckers, G. U. Jensen, and M. M. Mielnik, “Two clover-shaped piezoresistive silicon microphones for photo acoustic gas sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(4), 045010 (2010).
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J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

C. Bauer, U. Willer, R. Lewicki, A. Pohlkötter, A. Kosterev, D. Kosynkin, F. K. Tittel, and W. Schade, “A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.157(1), 012002 (2009).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49(11), 111124 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (2)

M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen, “Carbon monoxide in the earth’s atmosphere: increasing trend,” Science224(4644), 54–56 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Ravishankara, J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann, “Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century,” Science326(5949), 123–125 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (2)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Elia, F. Rizzi, C. Di Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy of volatile chemicals: application to hexamethyldisilazane,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.64(2), 426–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. Lewicki, J. Waclawek, M. Jahjah, Y. Ma, E. Chrysostom, B. Lendl, and F. K. Tittel, “A sensitive CW DFB quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor for detection of SO2,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper ATh5A.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Optimization for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N2O and CO with a quantum cascade laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper ATh3L.

R. Lewicki, L. Dong, Y. Ma, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact CW quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor for sensitive detection of nitric oxide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW3B.4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of a high power 4.61 µm CW RT TEC DFB-QCL based QEPAS system for ppb detection of CO and N2O.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) LIV curve of the 4.61 µm RT, CW, DFB-QCL from center for quantum devices, Northwestern University; (b) DFB-QCL current tuning at different DFB-QCL operating temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HITRAN based simulation spectra of CO and N2O at a temperature of 296 K, a standard atmospheric pressure, an optical path length of 1 cm for 200 ppb CO, 2% H2O and 300 ppb N2O, respectively. (a) Absorption spectra; (b) 2nd harmonic absorption spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured CO QEPAS signal amplitude as a function of laser modulation depth for a dry 5 ppm CO:N2 mixture at five different pressure values. The QEPAS signal is recorded in terms of internal CEU units, where 1cnt = 6.67 × 10−16 A.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured QEPAS based CO signal amplitude as a function of water vapor concentration at atmospheric pressure and a modulation depth of 0.325 cm−1. 1cnt = 6.67 × 10−16 A. Insert for (a) QEPAS signal for a 5 ppmv CO:N2 mixture; dry and moisturized with 2.6% H2O concentration; (b) pure N2

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

QEPAS based CO signals for laboratory air containing 1.6% and 2.6% water vapor concentration levels at atmospheric pressure using a DFB-QCL modulation depth of 0.325 cm−1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) QEPAS signal amplitude recorded in the line locking mode as the CO concentration is varied at atmospheric pressure and a modulation depth of 0.26 cm−1. (b) QEPAS signals amplitude averaged from Fig. 7(a) as a function of CO concentration. 1cnt = 6.67 × 10−16 A.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Allan deviation plot for time series measurements of pure N2 for the QEPAS based CO sensor system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels from an air sampled on Rice University campus, Houston, TX, USA (Latitude and longitude are: 29° 43′ N/95° 23′ W). (a) CO concentration measurements; (b) N2O concentration measurements.

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