Abstract

InGaN based MQW solar cells have been fabricated with 4 different transparent top electrode structures: (1)- ITO 200 nm, (2)-ITO nano dots only, (3)-ITO nano dots on ITO 50 nm and (4)-ITO nano dots on ITO 100 nm. The solar cell with the ITO 50 nm on ITO nano dots under AM 1.5 conditions showed the best results: 2.3 V for Voc, 0.69 mA/cm2 for Jsc, 41.8% for peak EQE, and 0.91% for conversion efficiency. Efficiency improvement was possible due to the decreased reflectance achieved by the ITO nano dots covered with an ITO film with optimized thickness.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single quantum well structure blue and violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. P. Shim, S. R. Jeon, Y. K. Jeong, and D. S. Lee, “Improved efficiency by using transparent contact layers in InGaN based p-i-n solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(10), 1140–1142 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (5)

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shim, S. R. Jeon, Y. K. Jeong, and D. S. Lee, “Improved efficiency by using transparent contact layers in InGaN based p-i-n solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(10), 1140–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single quantum well structure blue and violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Al-Heji, A. A.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S. Y.

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. H.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. C.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. S.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. H.

D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chocho, K.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choe, M. H.

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. R.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. S.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, S. C.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuong, T. V.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, St.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z. J.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faleev, N. N.

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I. T.

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilmore, C. M.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. S.

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, R.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C. B.

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. M.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single quantum well structure blue and violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jamil, M.

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jampana, B. R.

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jani, O.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. R.

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shim, S. R. Jeon, Y. K. Jeong, and D. S. Lee, “Improved efficiency by using transparent contact layers in InGaN based p-i-n solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(10), 1140–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. K.

J. P. Shim, S. R. Jeon, Y. K. Jeong, and D. S. Lee, “Improved efficiency by using transparent contact layers in InGaN based p-i-n solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(10), 1140–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, C.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keller, St.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. J.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kushto, G.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J. R.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. S.

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shim, S. R. Jeon, Y. K. Jeong, and D. S. Lee, “Improved efficiency by using transparent contact layers in InGaN based p-i-n solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(10), 1140–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. H.

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leem, D. S.

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W. Y.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. M.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Melton, A. G.

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S. I.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single quantum well structure blue and violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single quantum well structure blue and violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Namkoong, G.

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C. J.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, T. S.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opila, R. L.

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, A. H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pham, V. H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pique´, A.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single quantum well structure blue and violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D. J.

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, T. H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. P.

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shim, S. R. Jeon, Y. K. Jeong, and D. S. Lee, “Improved efficiency by using transparent contact layers in InGaN based p-i-n solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(10), 1140–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C. S.

D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toledo, N. G.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. Y.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Umemoto, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Hove, J. M.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

J. P. Shim, M. H. Choe, S. R. Jeon, D. J. Seo, T. H. Lee, and D. S. Lee, “InGaN-based p-i-n solar cells with graphene electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single quantum well structure blue and violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. I. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Continuous-wave operation of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2014–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, St. Keller, St. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

S. M. Huang, Y. Yao, C. Jin, Z. Sun, and Z. J. Dong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” Displays29(3), 254–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (4)

B. R. Jampana, A. G. Melton, M. Jamil, N. N. Faleev, R. L. Opila, I. T. Ferguson, and C. B. Honsberg, “Design and realization of wide-band-gap(~2.67ev) InGaN p-n junction solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(1), 32–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shim, S. R. Jeon, Y. K. Jeong, and D. S. Lee, “Improved efficiency by using transparent contact layers in InGaN based p-i-n solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(10), 1140–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. S. Leem, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, A. Pique´, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 6021–6025 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(9), 092301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

S. I. Na, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Surface texturing of p-GaN layer for efficient GaN LED by maskless selective etching,” Phys. Status Solidi2(7c), 2916–2919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (2)

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron.47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Schematic representation of the key steps for fabricating In0.27Ga0.73N/GaN MQW based Solar Cells with the ITO films on the ITO nano dots. SEM images of the (b) ITO nano dots only, (c) ITO 50 nm on the ITO nano dots and (d) ITO 100 nm on the ITO nano dots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Measured reflectance data in ITO on GaN compared with calculated data for ITO 50nm, 100nm and 200nm by the FDTD method, respectively. The inset shows a schematic illustration of reflected light at the thin films. (b) Contour plot of the variation of reflectance spectra as a function of the ITO thickness on GaN substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Measured reflectance spectra of the fabricated structures at normal incidence and schematic representation of fabricated structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) J-V curves and (b) EQE characteristics for Solar Cells with planar ITO 200 nm (ref.), ITO nano dots only, ITO 50 nm on the ITO nano dots and ITO 100 nm on the ITO nano dots for transparent current spreading layer, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Dark I-V curve for Solar Cells with (1)-200 nm ITO film only, (2)-ITO nano dots only, (3)-ITO 50 nm on the ITO nano dots and (4)-ITO 100 nm on the ITO nano dots, respectively. The inset shows typical EL spectra at 20 mA.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Solar Cell Parameters

Equations (2)

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R= n 1 2 ( n 0 n s ) 2 cos 2 δ+ ( n 0 n s n 1 2 ) 2 sin 2 δ n 1 2 ( n 0 + n s ) 2 cos 2 δ+ ( n 0 n s + n 1 2 ) 2 sin 2 δ
δ= 2π λ 0 ( n 1 t)

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