Abstract

White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) suffer from poor outcoupling efficiencies. The use of Bragg-gratings to enhance the outcoupling efficiency is very promising for light extraction in OLEDs, but such periodic structures can lead to angular or spectral dependencies in the devices. Here we present a method which combines highly efficient outcoupling by a TiO2-Bragg-grating leading to a 104% efficiency enhancement and an additional high quality microlens diffusor at the substrate/air interface. With the addition of this diffusor, we achieved not only a uniform white emission, but also further increased the already improved device efficiency by another 94% leading to an overall enhancement factor of about 4.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23, 33–248 (2010).
  2. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).
  3. C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5505 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Chopra, J. Lee, J. Xue, and F. So, “High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs,” IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.57, 101–107 (2010).
  5. S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External Quantum Efficiency Above 20% in Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Bocksrocker, F. Maier-Flaig, C. Eschenbaum, and U. Lemmer, “Efficient waveguide mode extraction in white organic light emitting diodes using ITO-anodes with integrated MgF₂-columns,” Opt. Express20(6), 6170–6174 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Metallic Bragg-gratings for light management in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103303 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Ziebarth, A. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(5), 451–456 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External Quantum Efficiency Above 20% in Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Metallic Bragg-gratings for light management in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23, 33–248 (2010).

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Chopra, J. Lee, J. Xue, and F. So, “High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs,” IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.57, 101–107 (2010).

K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Ziebarth, A. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ai, N.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aichholz, M.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W.

J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

Burroughes, J.

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, M. Y.

K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. F.

K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, N.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, J. Xue, and F. So, “High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs,” IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.57, 101–107 (2010).

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cina, S.

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A.

J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eschenbaum, C.

Faircloth, T.

J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Ziebarth, A. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gall, A.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23, 33–248 (2010).

Gerken, M.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Metallic Bragg-gratings for light management in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilmore, C. M.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gleiss, S.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, H.

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guetlein, J.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Metallic Bragg-gratings for light management in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. Y.

K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. E.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External Quantum Efficiency Above 20% in Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S. O.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External Quantum Efficiency Above 20% in Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jory, M.

J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Köhnen, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23, 33–248 (2010).

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, J. Xue, and F. So, “High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs,” IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.57, 101–107 (2010).

Lee, J. Y.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External Quantum Efficiency Above 20% in Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

T. Bocksrocker, F. Maier-Flaig, C. Eschenbaum, and U. Lemmer, “Efficient waveguide mode extraction in white organic light emitting diodes using ITO-anodes with integrated MgF₂-columns,” Opt. Express20(6), 6170–6174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Metallic Bragg-gratings for light management in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Liu, K. H.

K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luessem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Luo, C.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J.

J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maier-Flaig, F.

Matterson, B.

J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Ziebarth, A. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23, 33–248 (2010).

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murata, J.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, H.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. T.

K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N.

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piqué, A.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Riedel, B.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Metallic Bragg-gratings for light management in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saafir, A.

J. Ziebarth, A. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I.

J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Shiang, J.

J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, N.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, J. Xue, and F. So, “High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs,” IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.57, 101–107 (2010).

Son, H. S.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External Quantum Efficiency Above 20% in Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Wang, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, J. Xue, and F. So, “High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs,” IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.57, 101–107 (2010).

Yu, S.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ziebarth, J.

J. Ziebarth, A. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

J. Ziebarth, A. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23, 33–248 (2010).

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External Quantum Efficiency Above 20% in Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Metallic Bragg-gratings for light management in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lupton, B. Matterson, I. Samuel, M. Jory, and W. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, J. Xue, and F. So, “High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs,” IEEE Trans Electron. Dev.57, 101–107 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Piqué, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, J. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Luessem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459, 234–238 (2009).

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Org. El.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. El.12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron.11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sens. and Act. A.

K. H. Liu, M. F. Chen, C. T. Pan, M. Y. Chang, and W. Y. Huang, “Fabrication of various dimensions of high fill-factor micro-lens arrays for OLED package,” Sens. and Act. A.159, 126–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication schemes: (a) Laser-interference lithography setup. The laser beam is split into two separate beams, which are widened up and are brought to interference under a certain angle at the substrate surface. (b) After illumination the resist is developed, which leaves a resist grating on the sample. (c) TiO2 is evaporated onto the sample. (d) After lift-off a TiO2 grating results. (e) SEM image of a TiO2 grating with a 330 nm period. (f) The WOLED stack is fabricated on top. (g) SEM image of a cross section of a finished WOLED with grating. (h) A PDMS microlens stamp is pressed into a layer of PMMA/anisol, which results into a microlens array at the substrate/air interface. (i) SEM image of a microlens array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured I-V characteristics of the reference device and the devices with 15 nm and 35 nm grating height. (b) Relative current efficiencies of the devices. (c) Relative power efficiencies of the devices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scheme of light propagation in the reference device. Generated light is partly trapped in waveguide modes and in substrate modes. Light in the escape cone has the chance to exit the device (radiation modes). (b) Possible scattering of photons due to the grating. Yellow arrows: the emitter couples to waveguide modes, substrate modes and radiation modes. Green arrows: the grating can scatter waveguided photons to substrate modes and radiation modes. Photons that were initially in substrate modes can also scatter into radiation modes. Red arrows: back scattering of photons from radiation modes or substrate modes into waveguide modes. Photons from radiation modes can also scatter into substrate modes. (c) Overview off the different devices and their respective enhancement factors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Comparison of the relative efficiencies of the 15 nm grating device with and without the microlens array. (b) Relative efficiencies of the 35 nm grating device with and without the microlens array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)-(d) Measured angle resolved normalized spectral emission of the same luminous areas. The 35 nm grating device without (a) and with (b) the microlens array and the 15 nm grating device without (c) and with (d) the microlens array.

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