Abstract

We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (Voc) and fill factor (FF).

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express19(S2Suppl 2), A108–A117 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

2010 (5)

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola-shaped subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Friedman, “Progress and challenges for next-generation high-efficiency multijunction solar cells,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.14(6), 131–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Design of highly transparent glasses with broadband antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express18(12), 13063–13071 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cell,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express17(23), 20991–20997 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

2005 (1)

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Yamaguchi, “III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present and future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells75(1-2), 261–269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. M. Swanson, “The promise of Concentrators,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.8(1), 93–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Al-Abbadi, N. M.

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bernal-Agustin, J. L.

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cell,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A. W.

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, R.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Chang, C.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-H.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Chhajed, S.

Chiu, C.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. J.

Dimroth, F.

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fracastoro, G. V.

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cell,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D.

D. Friedman, “Progress and challenges for next-generation high-efficiency multijunction solar cells,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.14(6), 131–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, A.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guter, W.

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoheisel, R.

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hornung, T.

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y.-K.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-F.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, S. J.

Jen, Y.-J.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Kojima, Y.

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, T.-A.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Lo, H.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mont, F. W.

Morhard, C.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oliva, E.

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pacholski, C.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Pan, C.-L.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, C. Y.

Peharz, G.

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, K.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philipps, S. P.

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sandfuchs, O.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Schone, J.

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Siefer, G.

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Song, Y. M.

Southwell, W. H.

Spatz, J.

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Steiner, M.

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, R. M.

R. M. Swanson, “The promise of Concentrators,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.8(1), 93–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wekkeli, A.

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Welser, E.

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Xu, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, “III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present and future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells75(1-2), 261–269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.-S.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeo, C. I.

Yu, J. S.

Yu, J.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubi, G.

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cell,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Guter, J. Schone, S. P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion efficiency under concentrated sunlight,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 223504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

D. Friedman, “Progress and challenges for next-generation high-efficiency multijunction solar cells,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.14(6), 131–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-Angle Antireflection Effect of Subwavelength Structures for Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Brunner, O. Sandfuchs, C. Pacholski, C. Morhard, and J. Spatz, “Lessons from nature: biomimetic subwavelength structures for high-performance optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 1–19 (2011).

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-F. Huang, Y.-J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Swanson, “The promise of Concentrators,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.8(1), 93–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (1)

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cell,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Small (2)

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola-shaped subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

S. P. Philipps, G. Peharz, R. Hoheisel, T. Hornung, N. M. Al-Abbadi, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Energy harvesting efficiency of III-V triple-junction concentrator solar cells under realistic spectral conditions,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(5), 869–877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, “III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present and future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells75(1-2), 261–269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperical College Press, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of CPV sub-receiver module with BARCs. The right figure shows the fabrication steps for BARCs with moth eye surfaces, (b) Refractive index profiles of CPV sub-receiver module as a function of height for three different cases: without bare coverglass (BC), with BC, and with BARC. Refractive indices of each material at ~600 nm were considered.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated total transmittance spectra (300 - 1800 nm) of glasses with moth eye structure (single-side) (a) for 200, 400, and 600 nm period and (b) for 200 - 500 nm heights with 100 nm steps. Transmittance data of glass with a flat surface is also included as a reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM images (45°-tilted angle view) of (i-iii) thermally dewetted Ag NPs on coverglass substrates and (iv-vi) moth eye structures fabricated with an overall dry etch process for 7 min. Initial Ag film thicknesses correspond to (i, iv) 10 nm, (ii, v) 20 nm, and (iii, vi) 30 nm, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm. (b) Measured transmittance of a bare glass (black solid line) and moth eye structure integrated glasses with Ag film thickness of 10, 20, and 30 nm, respectively. A black dotted line corresponds to the maximum transmittance spectra of glass with zero-reflectance at single-side.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured reflectance results of GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells without BC (black line), with BC (blue line), with BARC (red line). AM 1.5G solar spectrum is also shown as a reference. (b) J-V characteristics of sub-receiver modules with three different types under AM 1.5G 1-sun. Inset shows the Jsc of modules of three types.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power conversion efficiency and current density of CPV sub-receiver modules with three different types as a function of light concentration ratio.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Device characteristics of the sub-receiver modules for three different types

Metrics