Abstract

The upconversion photoluminescent quantum yield (PLQY) of erbium-doped hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride (β-NaYF4: 10% Er3+) was measured under broadband excitation with full width half maxima ranging from 12 to 80 nm. A novel method was developed to increase the bandwidth of excitation, while remaining independent of power via normalization to the air mass 1.5 direct solar spectrum. The measurements reveal that by broadening the excitation spectrum a higher PLQY can be achieved at lower solar concentrations. The highest PLQY of 16.2 ± 0.5% was achieved at 2270 ± 100 mW mm−2 and is the highest ever measured.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J.-C. Guillaume, K. Zahraman, “Below band-gap IR response of substrate-free GaAs solar cells using two-photon up-conversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4401–4402 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, “Enhancing the near-infrared spectral response of silicon optoelectronic devices via up-conversion,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(10), 2679–2684 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Ivanova, F. Pellé, “Strong 1.53 µm to NIR-VIS-UV upconversion in Er-doped fluoride glass for high-efficiency solar cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(10), 1930–1938 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Ballato, S. H. Foulger, J. D. W. Smith., “Optical properties of perfluorocyclobutyl polymers. II. Theoretical and experimental attenuation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(5), 958–967 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. A. Green, ed., “Solar Cells: Operating Principles: Technology and System Applications,” (The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2033, 1982).
  20. A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, S. Fischer, S. Janz, M. Peters, S. W. Glunz, G. Willeke, E. Lifshitz, K. Krämer, and D. Biner, “Advanced upconverter systems with spectral and geometric concentration for high upconversion efficiencies,” Proc. of IEEE Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices (IEEE, 2008), pp. 307–311.
  22. M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. M. Johnson, P. J. Reece, G. J. Conibeer, “Slow-light-enhanced upconversion for photovoltaic applications in one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3990–3992 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, “Field enhancement in metallic subwavelength aperture arrays probed by erbium upconversion luminescence,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14586–14598 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Johnson, P. J. Reece, G. J. Conibeer, “Slow-light-enhanced upconversion for photovoltaic applications in one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3990–3992 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, “Enhancing the near-infrared spectral response of silicon optoelectronic devices via up-conversion,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(10), 2679–2684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, S. H. Foulger, J. D. W. Smith., “Optical properties of perfluorocyclobutyl polymers. II. Theoretical and experimental attenuation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(5), 958–967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J.-C. Guillaume, K. Zahraman, “Below band-gap IR response of substrate-free GaAs solar cells using two-photon up-conversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4401–4402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1961

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aleshchenkov, S.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J.-C. Guillaume, K. Zahraman, “Below band-gap IR response of substrate-free GaAs solar cells using two-photon up-conversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4401–4402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

Baluschev, S.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, G. H.

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biner, D.

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruggemann, R.

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cánovas, E.

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheprakov, A.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, S.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clady, R. G. C. R.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conibeer, G. J.

Crossley, M. J.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Wild, J.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

del Cañizo, C.

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, S.

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foulger, S. H.

Frei, G.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerner, P.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J.-C. Guillaume, K. Zahraman, “Below band-gap IR response of substrate-free GaAs solar cells using two-photon up-conversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4401–4402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S. W.

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, J. D.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guillaume, J.-C.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J.-C. Guillaume, K. Zahraman, “Below band-gap IR response of substrate-free GaAs solar cells using two-photon up-conversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4401–4402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heer, S.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hermle, M.

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanova, S.

Jiang, S.

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. M.

Khoury, T.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krämer, K.

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

Leitão, J. P.

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löper, P.

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luque, A.

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miteva, T.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelles, G.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, A. C.

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pellé, F.

Polman, A.

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rath, J. K.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reece, P. J.

Reinhard, C.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, “Enhancing the near-infrared spectral response of silicon optoelectronic devices via up-conversion,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(10), 2679–2684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, T.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, S. J.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santos, N. M.

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, T. W.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreuder, M. A.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, “Enhancing the near-infrared spectral response of silicon optoelectronic devices via up-conversion,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(10), 2679–2684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. D. W.

Smith, N. J.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tayebjee, M. J. Y.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trupke, T.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warnement, M. R.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S. M.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakutkin, V.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuda, A.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahraman, K.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J.-C. Guillaume, K. Zahraman, “Below band-gap IR response of substrate-free GaAs solar cells using two-photon up-conversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4401–4402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Güdel, M. P. Hehlen, S. R. Lüthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, “Enhancing the near-infrared spectral response of silicon optoelectronic devices via up-conversion,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(10), 2679–2684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Fischer, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, G. H. Bauer, R. Bruggemann, K. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: optical and electrical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J.-C. Guillaume, K. Zahraman, “Below band-gap IR response of substrate-free GaAs solar cells using two-photon up-conversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4401–4402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

S. Baluschev, V. Yakutkin, T. Miteva, G. Wegner, T. Roberts, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, S. Chernov, S. Aleshchenkov, A. Cheprakov, “A general approach for non-coherently excited annihilation up-conversion: transforming the solar-spectrum,” New J. Phys. 10(1), 013007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

Y. Y. Cheng, T. Khoury, R. G. C. R. Clady, M. J. Y. Tayebjee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, M. J. Crossley, T. W. Schmidt, “On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(1), 66–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Baluschev, T. Miteva, V. Yakutkin, G. Nelles, A. Yasuda, G. Wegner, “Up-conversion fluorescence: noncoherent excitation by sunlight,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, P. Löper, K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, M. Hermle, S. W. Glunz, “Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1960–1963 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, “Enhanced near-infrared response of a-Si:H solar cells with β-NaYF4:Yb3+ (18%), Er3+ (2%) upconversion phosphors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2395–2398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Pan, C. del Cañizo, E. Cánovas, N. M. Santos, J. P. Leitão, A. Luque, “Enhancement of up-conversion efficiency by combining rare earth-doped phosphors with PbS quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(11), 1923–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Löper, S. Fischer, S. Janz, M. Peters, S. W. Glunz, G. Willeke, E. Lifshitz, K. Krämer, and D. Biner, “Advanced upconverter systems with spectral and geometric concentration for high upconversion efficiencies,” Proc. of IEEE Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices (IEEE, 2008), pp. 307–311.

M. A. Green, ed., “Solar Cells: Operating Principles: Technology and System Applications,” (The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2033, 1982).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level diagram for two Er3+ ions in close proximity, which shows the various transitions possible to achieve UC emission. The peak wavelengths associated with UC mechanisms GSA/ESA (solid arrows), ETU (dotted arrows) and UC emission (dot/dash arrows) are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Excitation scatter spectra used to achieve UC emission at 980 nm. The broadening of the spectrum due to additional channels from the AOTF can be seen as well as the asymmetric/symmetric sequence. The AM1.5D solar spectrum (grey shaded area) is also plotted against the secondary y-axis

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation wavelength dependence of achieving 980 nm UC emission with clear resonant peaks at 1523, 1509 and 1498 nm as shown by the grey shaded area. Increasing bandwidths encompass a larger portion of the excitation spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The standard reporting method is shown (black squares) in comparison to the suggested “suns” method for broadband excitation (red triangles). These results show very high efficiencies, which improve with lower solar concentrations.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PLQY = No . of Photons Emitted No . of Photons Absorbed
No . of Photons Emitted I 0 2 PLQY No . of Photons Emitted I 0 I 0 log (PLQY) 1 × log (I 0 )
Solar Concentration = E x c i t a t i o n P o w e r F l u x ( F W H M , λ c ) λ 1 λ 2 AM1 .5d Power Flux ( λ ) λ

Metrics