Abstract

This work demonstrated a-Si:H thin-film solar cells with backside TiO2 / SiO2 distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) for applications involving building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs). Selectively transparent solar cells are formed by adjusting the positions of the DBR stop bands to allow the transmission of certain parts of light through the solar cells. Measurement and simulation results indicate that the transmission of blue light (430 ~500 nm) with the combination of three DBR mirrors has the highest increase in conversion efficiency.

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2012 (2)

B. Roberts, D. M. Nanditha, M. Dissanayake, and P.-C. Ku, “Angular selective semi-transparent photovoltaics,” Opt. Express20(S2Suppl 2), A265–A269 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.11(3), 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal rear-contacts for thin-film silicon-based building integrated photovoltaics,” Opt. Express19(18), 17040–17052 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, and A. N. Tiwari, “The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films519(21), 7444–7448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

S. J. Kim, W. J. Kim, A. N. Cartwright, and P. N. Prasad, “Carrier multiplication in a PbSe nanocrystal and P3HT/PCBM tandem cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(19), 191107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Maurus, M. Schmid, B. Blersch, P. Lechner, and H. Schade, “PV for buildings: benefits and experiences with amorphous silicon in BIPV applications,” Refocus5(6), 22–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski Effect in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon and Related Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Meier, R. Flückiger, H. Keppner, and A. Shah, “Complete microcrystalline p-i-n solar cell-Crystalline or amorphous cell behavior?” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(7), 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. F. Seynhaeve, R. P. Barclay, G. J. Adriaenssens, and J. M. Marshall, “Post-transit time-of-flight currents as a probe of the density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(14), 10196–10205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

A. D. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adriaenssens, G. J.

G. F. Seynhaeve, R. P. Barclay, G. J. Adriaenssens, and J. M. Marshall, “Post-transit time-of-flight currents as a probe of the density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(14), 10196–10205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A. M.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimotoa, K.

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.11(3), 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

T. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, R. P.

G. F. Seynhaeve, R. P. Barclay, G. J. Adriaenssens, and J. M. Marshall, “Post-transit time-of-flight currents as a probe of the density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(14), 10196–10205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, J.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, R. N.

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blersch, B.

H. Maurus, M. Schmid, B. Blersch, P. Lechner, and H. Schade, “PV for buildings: benefits and experiences with amorphous silicon in BIPV applications,” Refocus5(6), 22–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacio, L. D.

P. G. O’Brien, D. P. Puzzo, A. Chutinan, L. D. Bonifacio, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(5), 611–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, K. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buecheler, S.

J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, and A. N. Tiwari, “The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films519(21), 7444–7448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cartwright, A. N.

S. J. Kim, W. J. Kim, A. N. Cartwright, and P. N. Prasad, “Carrier multiplication in a PbSe nanocrystal and P3HT/PCBM tandem cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(19), 191107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caughey, D. M.

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, N.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chueh, Y. L.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal rear-contacts for thin-film silicon-based building integrated photovoltaics,” Opt. Express19(18), 17040–17052 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. O’Brien, D. P. Puzzo, A. Chutinan, L. D. Bonifacio, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(5), 611–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contreras, M. A.

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
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B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231102 (2009).
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Dalal, V.

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231102 (2009).
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Dalal, V. L.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
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Do, J. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Isabella, S. Dobrovolskiy, G. Kroon, and M. Zeman, “Design and application of dielectric distributed Bragg back reflector in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

Drouard, E.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Egaas, B.

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El Daif, O.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

El-Emawy, M.

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ergen, O.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fave, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flückiger, R.

J. Meier, R. Flückiger, H. Keppner, and A. Shah, “Complete microcrystalline p-i-n solar cell-Crystalline or amorphous cell behavior?” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(7), 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gjessing, J.

Gomard, G.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gueunier-Farret, M. E.

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huffaker, D. L.

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Isabella, O.

O. Isabella, S. Dobrovolskiy, G. Kroon, and M. Zeman, “Design and application of dielectric distributed Bragg back reflector in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

Ishizukab, S.

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Islama, M. M.

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, E. V.

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kanevce, A.

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keppner, H.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, R. Flückiger, H. Keppner, and A. Shah, “Complete microcrystalline p-i-n solar cell-Crystalline or amorphous cell behavior?” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(7), 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kherani, N. P.

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal rear-contacts for thin-film silicon-based building integrated photovoltaics,” Opt. Express19(18), 17040–17052 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. O’Brien, D. P. Puzzo, A. Chutinan, L. D. Bonifacio, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(5), 611–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. J. Kim, W. J. Kim, A. N. Cartwright, and P. N. Prasad, “Carrier multiplication in a PbSe nanocrystal and P3HT/PCBM tandem cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(19), 191107 (2008).
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S. J. Kim, W. J. Kim, A. N. Cartwright, and P. N. Prasad, “Carrier multiplication in a PbSe nanocrystal and P3HT/PCBM tandem cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(19), 191107 (2008).
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Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
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P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
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L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kleider, J. P.

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kozinsky, I.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
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Kranz, L.

J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, and A. N. Tiwari, “The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films519(21), 7444–7448 (2011).
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Krc, J.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroon, G.

O. Isabella, S. Dobrovolskiy, G. Kroon, and M. Zeman, “Design and application of dielectric distributed Bragg back reflector in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

Ku, P.-C.

Laghumavarapu, R. B.

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lechner, P.

H. Maurus, M. Schmid, B. Blersch, P. Lechner, and H. Schade, “PV for buildings: benefits and experiences with amorphous silicon in BIPV applications,” Refocus5(6), 22–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemiti, M.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leong, K.

Lester, L. F.

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leu, P. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. B. T.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Longeaud, C.

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
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R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113305 (2011).
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Luo, C.

Luxembourg, S. L.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahtani, P.

Marshall, J. M.

G. F. Seynhaeve, R. P. Barclay, G. J. Adriaenssens, and J. M. Marshall, “Post-transit time-of-flight currents as a probe of the density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(14), 10196–10205 (1989).
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Marstein, E. S.

Matsubarab, K.

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maurus, H.

H. Maurus, M. Schmid, B. Blersch, P. Lechner, and H. Schade, “PV for buildings: benefits and experiences with amorphous silicon in BIPV applications,” Refocus5(6), 22–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, R. Flückiger, H. Keppner, and A. Shah, “Complete microcrystalline p-i-n solar cell-Crystalline or amorphous cell behavior?” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(7), 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriwaki, A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moscho, A.

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanditha, D. M.

Neale, S.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikib, S.

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noufi, R. N.

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nuntawong, N.

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, P. G.

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal rear-contacts for thin-film silicon-based building integrated photovoltaics,” Opt. Express19(18), 17040–17052 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. O’Brien, D. P. Puzzo, A. Chutinan, L. D. Bonifacio, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(5), 611–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orobtchouk, R.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal rear-contacts for thin-film silicon-based building integrated photovoltaics,” Opt. Express19(18), 17040–17052 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. O’Brien, D. P. Puzzo, A. Chutinan, L. D. Bonifacio, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(5), 611–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pattnaik, S.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perrenoud, J.

J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, and A. N. Tiwari, “The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films519(21), 7444–7448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pianezzi, F.

J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, and A. N. Tiwari, “The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films519(21), 7444–7448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.11(3), 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

S. J. Kim, W. J. Kim, A. N. Cartwright, and P. N. Prasad, “Carrier multiplication in a PbSe nanocrystal and P3HT/PCBM tandem cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(19), 191107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puzzo, D. P.

P. G. O’Brien, D. P. Puzzo, A. Chutinan, L. D. Bonifacio, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(5), 611–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razavi, H.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichertz, L. A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, B.

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakuraia, T.

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

H. Maurus, M. Schmid, B. Blersch, P. Lechner, and H. Schade, “PV for buildings: benefits and experiences with amorphous silicon in BIPV applications,” Refocus5(6), 22–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

H. Maurus, M. Schmid, B. Blersch, P. Lechner, and H. Schade, “PV for buildings: benefits and experiences with amorphous silicon in BIPV applications,” Refocus5(6), 22–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seynhaeve, G. F.

G. F. Seynhaeve, R. P. Barclay, G. J. Adriaenssens, and J. M. Marshall, “Post-transit time-of-flight currents as a probe of the density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(14), 10196–10205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, A.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, R. Flückiger, H. Keppner, and A. Shah, “Complete microcrystalline p-i-n solar cell-Crystalline or amorphous cell behavior?” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(7), 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, X.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski Effect in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon and Related Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sites, J. R.

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slafer, W. D.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, T.

T. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soro, Y. M.

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sudbø, A.

Takahashi, T.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.

T. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. E.

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A. N.

J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, and A. N. Tiwari, “The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films519(21), 7444–7448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Topic, M.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vos, A. D.

A. D. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

Wu, M.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamadab, A.

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeman, M.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Isabella, S. Dobrovolskiy, G. Kroon, and M. Zeman, “Design and application of dielectric distributed Bragg back reflector in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. O’Brien, D. P. Puzzo, A. Chutinan, L. D. Bonifacio, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(5), 611–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhattacharya, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, R. N. Noufi, A. Kanevce, and J. R. Sites, “High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Kim, W. J. Kim, A. N. Cartwright, and P. N. Prasad, “Carrier multiplication in a PbSe nanocrystal and P3HT/PCBM tandem cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(19), 191107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Laghumavarapu, M. El-Emawy, N. Nuntawong, A. Moscho, L. F. Lester, and D. L. Huffaker, “Improved device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with GaP strain compensation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, R. Flückiger, H. Keppner, and A. Shah, “Complete microcrystalline p-i-n solar cell-Crystalline or amorphous cell behavior?” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(7), 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. M. Islama, S. Ishizukab, A. Yamadab, K. Matsubarab, S. Nikib, T. Sakuraia, and K. Akimotoa, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys.103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

O. Isabella, S. Dobrovolskiy, G. Kroon, and M. Zeman, “Design and application of dielectric distributed Bragg back reflector in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, “Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19–25), 2092–2095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

A. D. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski Effect in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon and Related Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.11(3), 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

G. F. Seynhaeve, R. P. Barclay, G. J. Adriaenssens, and J. M. Marshall, “Post-transit time-of-flight currents as a probe of the density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(14), 10196–10205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Refocus (1)

H. Maurus, M. Schmid, B. Blersch, P. Lechner, and H. Schade, “PV for buildings: benefits and experiences with amorphous silicon in BIPV applications,” Refocus5(6), 22–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, and A. N. Tiwari, “The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films519(21), 7444–7448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. J. Moeller, Semiconductor for solar cells (Artech House, 1993).

R. E. I. Schropp and M. Zeman, Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells - modeling, materals and device technology (Klumer Academic, 1998).

E. Hecht, Optic (Addison Wesley, 2001).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

Crosslight Software Inc, http://www.crosslight.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrations of DBRs are on the back side of n-type ZnO transparent contact, and their calculated reflective spectra. (a) DBR1, (b) DBR2, and (c) Wavelength selectivity transparent DBR is combined with DBR1 and DBR2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the DBR structure based on TiO2/SiO2. (b) Reflectance of this DBR structure. The measurement result depicted as red line contains DBR structure and reference cell. The simulation result depicted as blue line only contains DBR structure. (c) Blue color observed from the solar cell with DBRs under the strong white light source. This indicates only incident light around 450 nm wavelength can transmit through the DBRs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) J-V curves for semi-transparent BIPV with or without DBR. (b) Measured EQE spectrum for semi-transparent BIPV with and without back contacted DBR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The refractive indices as functions of wavelength for a-Si, TiO2, SiO2, ZnO. (b) Extinction coefficients for a-Si and TiO2. (c) Simulated EQE spectrum for semi-transparent BIPV without DBR (blue curve) and with DBR (red curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation Parameters for Field Dependent Mobility Model for a-Si (m.k.s. Units)

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ= μ 0 ( 1 1+ ( μ 0 E v sat ) β ) 1 β μ 0 = μ max μ min 1+ ( N N ref ) α + μ min

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