Abstract

Deep level defects in the multi-quantum well (MQW) region of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated. InGaN quantum well and GaN quantum barrier defect states were distinguished using bias-dependent steady-state photocapacitance and deep level optical spectroscopy, and their possible physical origin and potential impact on LED performance is considered. Lighted capacitance-voltage measurements provided quantitative and nanoscale depth profiling of the deep level concentration within the MQW region. The concentration of every observed deep level varied strongly with depth in the MQW region, which indicates evolving mechanisms for defect incorporation during MQW growth.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B77(4), 045312 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, M. Meneghini, and A. Cavallini, “Photocurrent spectroscopy evidence for stress-induced recombination centres in quantum wells of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, and S. A. Ringel, “A method to determine deep level profiles in highly compensated, wide band gap semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083529 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Armstrong, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “Quantitative and depth-resolved investigation of deep-Level defects in InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater.40(4), 369–376 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Passler, “Photoionization cross-section analysis for a deep trap contributing to current collapse in GaN field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 715–722 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. B. Klein, J. A. Freitas, S. C. Binari, and A. E. Wickenden, “Observation of deep traps responsible for current collapse in GaN metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(25), 4016–4018 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Blood and J. W. Orton, The Electrical Characterization of Semiconductors: Majority Carriers and Electron States (Academic, London, 1990), Chap. 7.
  18. J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 152108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. D. Brotherton, “Measurement of deep-level spatial distributions,” Sol. St. Elec.19(4), 341–342 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. M. Petroff, R. C. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Impurity trapping, interface structure, and luminescence of GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(2), 217–219 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “Quantitative and depth-resolved investigation of deep-Level defects in InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater.40(4), 369–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 152108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B77(4), 045312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, M. Meneghini, and A. Cavallini, “Photocurrent spectroscopy evidence for stress-induced recombination centres in quantum wells of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, and S. A. Ringel, “A method to determine deep level profiles in highly compensated, wide band gap semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083529 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Passler, “Photoionization cross-section analysis for a deep trap contributing to current collapse in GaN field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 715–722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. B. Klein, J. A. Freitas, S. C. Binari, and A. E. Wickenden, “Observation of deep traps responsible for current collapse in GaN metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(25), 4016–4018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1984

P. M. Petroff, R. C. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Impurity trapping, interface structure, and luminescence of GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(2), 217–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1976

S. D. Brotherton, “Measurement of deep-level spatial distributions,” Sol. St. Elec.19(4), 341–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abernathy, C. R.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, T.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allerman, A. A.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arehart, A. R.

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, and S. A. Ringel, “A method to determine deep level profiles in highly compensated, wide band gap semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083529 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, A.

A. Armstrong, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “Quantitative and depth-resolved investigation of deep-Level defects in InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater.40(4), 369–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, and S. A. Ringel, “A method to determine deep level profiles in highly compensated, wide band gap semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083529 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banas, M. A.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Binari, S. C.

P. B. Klein, J. A. Freitas, S. C. Binari, and A. E. Wickenden, “Observation of deep traps responsible for current collapse in GaN metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(25), 4016–4018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brotherton, S. D.

S. D. Brotherton, “Measurement of deep-level spatial distributions,” Sol. St. Elec.19(4), 341–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Castaldini, A.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, M. Meneghini, and A. Cavallini, “Photocurrent spectroscopy evidence for stress-induced recombination centres in quantum wells of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B77(4), 045312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavallini, A.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B77(4), 045312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, M. Meneghini, and A. Cavallini, “Photocurrent spectroscopy evidence for stress-induced recombination centres in quantum wells of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, M. H.

A. Armstrong, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “Quantitative and depth-resolved investigation of deep-Level defects in InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater.40(4), 369–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Follstaedt, D. M.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, J. A.

P. B. Klein, J. A. Freitas, S. C. Binari, and A. E. Wickenden, “Observation of deep traps responsible for current collapse in GaN metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(25), 4016–4018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

P. M. Petroff, R. C. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Impurity trapping, interface structure, and luminescence of GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(2), 217–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gotoh, H.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gür, E.

E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, M.

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hierro, A.

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janotti, A.

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 152108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaeding, J. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P. B.

P. B. Klein, J. A. Freitas, S. C. Binari, and A. E. Wickenden, “Observation of deep traps responsible for current collapse in GaN metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(25), 4016–4018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

A. Armstrong, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “Quantitative and depth-resolved investigation of deep-Level defects in InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater.40(4), 369–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krames, M. R.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, S.

E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, D.

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, J. L.

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 152108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, M.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, M. Meneghini, and A. Cavallini, “Photocurrent spectroscopy evidence for stress-induced recombination centres in quantum wells of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mihopoulos, T. G.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

P. M. Petroff, R. C. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Impurity trapping, interface structure, and luminescence of GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(2), 217–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passler, R.

R. Passler, “Photoionization cross-section analysis for a deep trap contributing to current collapse in GaN field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 715–722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

P. M. Petroff, R. C. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Impurity trapping, interface structure, and luminescence of GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(2), 217–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Provencio, P. P.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, S.

E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rigutti, L.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, M. Meneghini, and A. Cavallini, “Photocurrent spectroscopy evidence for stress-induced recombination centres in quantum wells of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B77(4), 045312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ringel, S. A.

E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, and S. A. Ringel, “A method to determine deep level profiles in highly compensated, wide band gap semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083529 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thaler, G.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Walle, C. G.

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 152108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waldrip, K. E.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

West, A. M.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wickenden, A. E.

P. B. Klein, J. A. Freitas, S. C. Binari, and A. E. Wickenden, “Observation of deep traps responsible for current collapse in GaN metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(25), 4016–4018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

P. M. Petroff, R. C. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Impurity trapping, interface structure, and luminescence of GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(2), 217–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional Dependence of Nonpolar m-Plane InxGa1-xN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Impact of carbon on trap states in n-type GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Klein, J. A. Freitas, S. C. Binari, and A. E. Wickenden, “Observation of deep traps responsible for current collapse in GaN metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(25), 4016–4018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Hierro, D. Kwon, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optically and thermally detected deep levels in n-type Schottky and p+-n GaN diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(21), 3064–3066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Gür, Z. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Rajan, and S. A. Ringel, “Detailed characterization of deep level defects in InGaN Schottky diodes by optical and thermal deep level spectroscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 092109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peakwidths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(15), 152108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Petroff, R. C. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Impurity trapping, interface structure, and luminescence of GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(2), 217–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Passler, “Photoionization cross-section analysis for a deep trap contributing to current collapse in GaN field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 715–722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, and S. A. Ringel, “A method to determine deep level profiles in highly compensated, wide band gap semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083529 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

A. Armstrong, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “Quantitative and depth-resolved investigation of deep-Level defects in InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater.40(4), 369–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B77(4), 045312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, M. Meneghini, and A. Cavallini, “Photocurrent spectroscopy evidence for stress-induced recombination centres in quantum wells of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sol. St. Elec.

S. D. Brotherton, “Measurement of deep-level spatial distributions,” Sol. St. Elec.19(4), 341–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Blood and J. W. Orton, The Electrical Characterization of Semiconductors: Majority Carriers and Electron States (Academic, London, 1990), Chap. 7.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) CV and LCV curves for the LED and (b) apparent space-charge density extracted from the dark CV data. Vth = −1.7 V is indicated, corresponding to the bias point at which V > Vth depletes only the MQW region and V < Vth depletes into the n-GaN bulk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SSPC spectra as a function of applied bias. Arrows mark the onset of individual deep levels, found by distinct changes in slope. Onsets at 1.60 eV, 2.05 eV, 2.60 eV and 2.70 eV evident at V = Vth are assigned to deep levels in the MQW region. The 3.25 eV onset that occurs only when V < Vth is assigned to a deep level in the n-GaN bulk. (b) DLOS spectrum taken at −1.7 and −8 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured voltage shift versus apparent depletion depth for the QW-related Ec – 2.76 eV deep level. The ρ(xd) profile from Fig. 1(b) is also plotted to identify contributions from individual QWs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of the deep level density in the MQW region.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Deep Level Defect Location and Properties Listed by Vr Value Used for DLOS Analysis

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔC=( N t Aε 2 N d x d )( x 2 2 x 1 2 x d 2 ).
V+ V b = q ε 0 x d x N d (x)x n t (x)dx ,
ΔV= q ε 0 x d x n t (x)dx .

Metrics