Abstract

We report the discovery of an enhancement of the random laser action in a nanocomposite comprising reduced graphene oxide nanoflakes and ZnO nanorods. We show that both emission intensity and lasing threshold exhibit an obvious improvement. Based on our theoretical calculations, the mechanism underlying the enhanced stimulated emission can be attributed to coupling between the optical transition and the surface plasmon resonance of the reduced graphene oxide nanoflakes, induced by the ZnO nanorod surface roughness. The approach we describe here will be very useful for the future development of high-efficiency optoelectronic devices and offers an alternative route for application of reduced graphene oxide.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. L. Lu, H. Y. Lin, T. T. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “Random lasing in the composites consisting of photonic crystals and semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 091106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Min Lee, J. Yi, W. Woo Lee, H. Yong Jeong, T. Jung, Y. Kim, and W. Il Park, “ZnO nanorods-graphene hybrid structures for enhanced current spreading and light extraction in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. L. Wang and J. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Yin, S. Wu, X. Zhou, X. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Boey, and H. Zhang, “Electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods on transparent reduced graphene oxide electrodes for hybrid solar cells,” Small6(2), 307–312 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 42–46 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(17), 2230 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. H. Hwang, R. Sensarma, and S. Das Sarma, “Plasmon-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82(19), 195406 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, and H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, and Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology17(6), 4391–4394 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. S. Wang, H. Y. Lin, T. H. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Enhancement of random lasing assisted by light scattering and resonance energy transfer based on ZnO/SnO nanocomposites,” AIP Adv.2(1), 012133 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. T. Chen and Y. F. Chen, “Enhanced random lasing in ZnO nanocombs assisted by Fabry-Perot resonance,” Opt. Express19(9), 8728–8734 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon47(1), 145–152 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Liu and R. F. Willis, “Plasmon-phonon strongly coupled mode in epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 081406 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. E. Trevisanutto, C. Giorgetti, L. Reining, M. Ladisa, and V. Olevano, “Ab initio GW many-body effects in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(22), 226405 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Min Lee, J. Yi, W. Woo Lee, H. Yong Jeong, T. Jung, Y. Kim, and W. Il Park, “ZnO nanorods-graphene hybrid structures for enhanced current spreading and light extraction in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wang, H. Y. Lin, T. H. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Enhancement of random lasing assisted by light scattering and resonance energy transfer based on ZnO/SnO nanocomposites,” AIP Adv.2(1), 012133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. T. Chen and Y. F. Chen, “Enhanced random lasing in ZnO nanocombs assisted by Fabry-Perot resonance,” Opt. Express19(9), 8728–8734 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Lu, H. Y. Lin, T. T. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “Random lasing in the composites consisting of photonic crystals and semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Hwang, R. Sensarma, and S. Das Sarma, “Plasmon-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82(19), 195406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, S. Wu, X. Zhou, X. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Boey, and H. Zhang, “Electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods on transparent reduced graphene oxide electrodes for hybrid solar cells,” Small6(2), 307–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and R. F. Willis, “Plasmon-phonon strongly coupled mode in epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 081406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Trevisanutto, C. Giorgetti, L. Reining, M. Ladisa, and V. Olevano, “Ab initio GW many-body effects in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(22), 226405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, and H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Z. L. Wang and J. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, and Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology17(6), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(17), 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abiyasa, A. P.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, and H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, K. J.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(17), 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bangert, U.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bleloch, A.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boey, F.

Z. Yin, S. Wu, X. Zhou, X. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Boey, and H. Zhang, “Electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods on transparent reduced graphene oxide electrodes for hybrid solar cells,” Small6(2), 307–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozoklu, G.

D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Briddon, P.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. A.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, I. S.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. T.

M. L. Lu, H. Y. Lin, T. T. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “Random lasing in the composites consisting of photonic crystals and semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

C. S. Wang, H. Y. Lin, T. H. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Enhancement of random lasing assisted by light scattering and resonance energy transfer based on ZnO/SnO nanocomposites,” AIP Adv.2(1), 012133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen and Y. F. Chen, “Enhanced random lasing in ZnO nanocombs assisted by Fabry-Perot resonance,” Opt. Express19(9), 8728–8734 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Lu, H. Y. Lin, T. T. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “Random lasing in the composites consisting of photonic crystals and semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, and Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology17(6), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(17), 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. T.

Cheng, C. L.

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, and Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology17(6), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chhowalla, M.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. T.

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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
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A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon47(1), 145–152 (2009).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
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A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 42–46 (2005).
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T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
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T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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P. E. Trevisanutto, C. Giorgetti, L. Reining, M. Ladisa, and V. Olevano, “Ab initio GW many-body effects in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(22), 226405 (2008).
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N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
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D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(17), 2230 (1997).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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E. H. Hwang, R. Sensarma, and S. Das Sarma, “Plasmon-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82(19), 195406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. W.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Il Park, W.

J. Min Lee, J. Yi, W. Woo Lee, H. Yong Jeong, T. Jung, Y. Kim, and W. Il Park, “ZnO nanorods-graphene hybrid structures for enhanced current spreading and light extraction in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Isoda, S.

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. Bleloch, K. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, T.

J. Min Lee, J. Yi, W. Woo Lee, H. Yong Jeong, T. Jung, Y. Kim, and W. Il Park, “ZnO nanorods-graphene hybrid structures for enhanced current spreading and light extraction in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Katsnelson, M. I.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. O.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. C.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

J. Min Lee, J. Yi, W. Woo Lee, H. Yong Jeong, T. Jung, Y. Kim, and W. Il Park, “ZnO nanorods-graphene hybrid structures for enhanced current spreading and light extraction in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, S.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(17), 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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P. E. Trevisanutto, C. Giorgetti, L. Reining, M. Ladisa, and V. Olevano, “Ab initio GW many-body effects in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(22), 226405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
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A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, and H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231106 (2007).
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N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, and H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041119 (2008).
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C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127403 (2010).
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Lin, H. Y.

C. S. Wang, H. Y. Lin, T. H. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Enhancement of random lasing assisted by light scattering and resonance energy transfer based on ZnO/SnO nanocomposites,” AIP Adv.2(1), 012133 (2012).
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M. L. Lu, H. Y. Lin, T. T. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “Random lasing in the composites consisting of photonic crystals and semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 091106 (2011).
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J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, and Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology17(6), 4391–4394 (2006).
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Lin, J. M.

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, and Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology17(6), 4391–4394 (2006).
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Lin, T. H.

C. S. Wang, H. Y. Lin, T. H. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Enhancement of random lasing assisted by light scattering and resonance energy transfer based on ZnO/SnO nanocomposites,” AIP Adv.2(1), 012133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. Y.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
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K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
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M. L. Lu, H. Y. Lin, T. T. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “Random lasing in the composites consisting of photonic crystals and semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 091106 (2011).
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A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattevi, C.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min Lee, J.

J. Min Lee, J. Yi, W. Woo Lee, H. Yong Jeong, T. Jung, Y. Kim, and W. Il Park, “ZnO nanorods-graphene hybrid structures for enhanced current spreading and light extraction in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061107 (2012).
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P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041119 (2008).
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D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(17), 2230 (1997).
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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

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AIP Adv. (1)

C. S. Wang, H. Y. Lin, T. H. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Enhancement of random lasing assisted by light scattering and resonance energy transfer based on ZnO/SnO nanocomposites,” AIP Adv.2(1), 012133 (2012).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

C. T. Chien, S. S. Li, W. J. Lai, Y. C. Yeh, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and V. Olevano, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., doi:.
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041119 (2008).
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M. L. Lu, H. Y. Lin, T. T. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “Random lasing in the composites consisting of photonic crystals and semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 091106 (2011).
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J. Min Lee, J. Yi, W. Woo Lee, H. Yong Jeong, T. Jung, Y. Kim, and W. Il Park, “ZnO nanorods-graphene hybrid structures for enhanced current spreading and light extraction in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 061107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Raman spectra of reduced graphene oxide nanoflakes (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the composite of ZnO nanorods and reduced graphene oxide. (c) Side-view SEM image of the structure showing the ZnO nanorods with the coverage of reduced graphene oxide nanoflakes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoluminescence spectra of (a) pristine ZnO nanorods (b) the composite consisting of ZnO nanorods and reduced graphene oxide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation between emission intensity versus excitation power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Theoretical simulation result of surface corrugation of ZnO nanorod versus the wavelength of graphene surface plasmon. The arrow indicates that when the surface corrugation is 1.56 nm, the corresponding surface plasmon wavelength is 388 nm, which belongs to one of the peak position of laser action shown in Fig. 2. (b) High resolution transmission electron microscope image of ZnO nanorod.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra for pristine ZnO nanorods and reduced graphene oxide/ZnO nanorods monitored at the peak emission wavelength of 388 nm.

Equations (1)

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ω(q)=[ n e e 2 ε 0 (1+ ε b ) m * q+ 3 4 ν F 2 q 2 ],

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