Abstract

The enhancement of light extraction efficiency for thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with GaN micro-domes on n-GaN layer was studied. The light extraction efficiency of TFFC InGaN QWs LEDs with GaN micro-domes were calculated and compared to that of the conventional TFFC InGaN QWs LEDs with flat surface. The three dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method was used to calculate the light extraction efficiency for the InGaN QWs LEDs emitting at 460nm and 550 nm, respectively. The effects of the GaN micro-dome feature size and the p-GaN layer thickness on the light extraction efficiency were studied systematically. Studies indicate that the p-GaN layer thickness is critical for optimizing the TFFC LED light extraction efficiency. Significant enhancement of the light extraction efficiency (2.5-2.7 times for ?peak = 460nm and 2.7-2.8 times for ?peak = 550nm) is achievable from TFFC InGaN QWs LEDs with optimized GaN micro-dome diameter and height.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

Y. Li, B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Investigation of optical properties of InGaN-InN-InGaN/GaN quantum-well in the green spectral regime,” Physica E 44, 821–825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Lee, H. K. Kwon, J. S. Park, and D. Ahn, “Spontaneous emission rate of green strain-compensated InGaN/InGaN LEDs using InGaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(1), 195–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “Breakthrough in photonics 2009: III-Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 236–243 (2010).

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar ands III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (11)

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, and S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, W. Chen, S. Shei, C. Kuo, T. Ko, C. Shen, J. Tsai, W. Lai, J. Sheu, and A. Lin, “High-brightness InGaN-GaN power flip-chip LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 1985–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Fu, K. K. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tans, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and J. W. Kim, “High-efficiency staggered 530 nm InGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24(21), 12150–12157 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5? microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, J. Park, and E. Yoon, “Optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures with embedded AlGaN ? layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN ? layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chu, F. Lai, J. Chu, C. Yu, C. Lin, H. Kuo, and S. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3916–3922 (2004).

2003 (3)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. C. Hulteen and R. P. Vanduyne, “Nanosphere lithography: A materials general fabrication process for periodic particle array surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1553–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

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[CrossRef]

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A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
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Chen, C.-C.

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Chien, H.-T.

C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
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Cho, J.

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Choi, H. W.

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Choi, J. H.

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R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
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Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5? microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
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T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
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D. G. Deppe and C. Lei, “Spontaneous emission and optical gain in a Fabry-perot microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(5), 527–529 (1992).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
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H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
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P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24(21), 12150–12157 (2008).
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R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
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Ee, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
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C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W. Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. K. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24(21), 12150–12157 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, Y. B.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, M. S.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C.-H.

C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.-C.

C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5? microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tans, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
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Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5? microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
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Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
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A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A. Y.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
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Kim, J. W.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and J. W. Kim, “High-efficiency staggered 530 nm InGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041109 (2009).
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Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
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Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
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S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Lee, H. K. Kwon, J. S. Park, and D. Ahn, “Spontaneous emission rate of green strain-compensated InGaN/InGaN LEDs using InGaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(1), 195–198 (2011).
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M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
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M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar ands III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
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S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
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I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
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I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
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S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
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Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Lee, H. K. Kwon, J. S. Park, and D. Ahn, “Spontaneous emission rate of green strain-compensated InGaN/InGaN LEDs using InGaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(1), 195–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
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S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and J. W. Kim, “High-efficiency staggered 530 nm InGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041109 (2009).
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C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Penn, S. T.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tans, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tans, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. W.

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, and S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T.-Y.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O.

M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S.

Shen, C.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J.

Shim, H. W.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Smowton, P. M.

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. O.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5? microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S. A.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taillepierre, P.

C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tans, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tans, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “Breakthrough in photonics 2009: III-Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 236–243 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24(21), 12150–12157 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, J. D.

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “Breakthrough in photonics 2009: III-Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 236–243 (2010).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. L.

C. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J.

Vanduyne, R. P.

J. C. Hulteen and R. P. Vanduyne, “Nanosphere lithography: A materials general fabrication process for periodic particle array surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1553–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

C. Chu, F. Lai, J. Chu, C. Yu, C. Lin, H. Kuo, and S. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3916–3922 (2004).

Watson, I. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5? microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K.

W. Y. Fu, K. K. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Q.

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Xie, Z.

Y. Li, B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Investigation of optical properties of InGaN-InN-InGaN/GaN quantum-well in the green spectral regime,” Physica E 44, 821–825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-L.

C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K.

K. Yee, “Numerical Solution of Initial Boundary Value Problem Involving Maxwell’s Equations in Isotropic Media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, E.

S. H. Park, J. Park, and E. Yoon, “Optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures with embedded AlGaN ? layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

C. Chu, F. Lai, J. Chu, C. Yu, C. Lin, H. Kuo, and S. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3916–3922 (2004).

Zhang, J.

Zhang, R.

Y. Li, B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Investigation of optical properties of InGaN-InN-InGaN/GaN quantum-well in the green spectral regime,” Physica E 44, 821–825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “Breakthrough in photonics 2009: III-Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 236–243 (2010).

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tans, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Li, B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Investigation of optical properties of InGaN-InN-InGaN/GaN quantum-well in the green spectral regime,” Physica E 44, 821–825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C.-H. Chan, A. Fischer, A. Martinez-Gil, P. Taillepierre, C.-C. Lee, S.-L. Yang, C.-H. Hou, H.-T. Chien, D.-P. Cai, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-C. Chen, “Anti-reflection layer formed by monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 547–551 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (18)

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5? microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Deppe and C. Lei, “Spontaneous emission and optical gain in a Fabry-perot microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(5), 527–529 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tans, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and J. W. Kim, “High-efficiency staggered 530 nm InGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN ? layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, J. Park, and E. Yoon, “Optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures with embedded AlGaN ? layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Chu, F. Lai, J. Chu, C. Yu, C. Lin, H. Kuo, and S. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3916–3922 (2004).

W. Y. Fu, K. K. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Display Technol. (1)

M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, and S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “Breakthrough in photonics 2009: III-Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 236–243 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

K. Yee, “Numerical Solution of Initial Boundary Value Problem Involving Maxwell’s Equations in Isotropic Media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar ands III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

J. C. Hulteen and R. P. Vanduyne, “Nanosphere lithography: A materials general fabrication process for periodic particle array surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1553–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
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Langmuir (1)

P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24(21), 12150–12157 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
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W. Lukosz, “Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,” Phys. Rev. B 22(6), 3030–3038 (1980).
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Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Lee, H. K. Kwon, J. S. Park, and D. Ahn, “Spontaneous emission rate of green strain-compensated InGaN/InGaN LEDs using InGaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(1), 195–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

Y. Li, B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. Xie, and Y. Zheng, “Investigation of optical properties of InGaN-InN-InGaN/GaN quantum-well in the green spectral regime,” Physica E 44, 821–825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2: Devices, Measurements, and Properties, 1994).

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