Abstract

A route to improving the overall efficiency of multi-junction solar cells employing conventional III-V and Si photovoltaic junctions is presented here. A simulation model was developed to consider the performance of several multi-junction solar cell structures in various multi-terminal configurations. For series connected, 2-terminal triple-junction solar cells, incorporating an AlGaAs top junction, a GaAs middle junction and either a Si or InGaAs bottom junction, it was found that the configuration with a Si bottom junction yielded a marginally higher one sun efficiency of 41.5% versus 41.3% for an InGaAs bottom junction. A significant efficiency gain of 1.8% over the two-terminal device can be achieved by providing an additional terminal to the Si bottom junction in a 3-junction mechanically stacked configuration. It is shown that the optimum performance can be achieved by employing a four-junction series-connected mechanically stacked device incorporating a Si subcell between top AlGaAs/GaAs and bottom In0.53Ga0.47As cells.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. J. Friedman, “Progress and challenges for next-generation high-efficiency multijunction solar cells,” Curr. Opin. Solid St. M.14(6), 131–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Hsu and W. Walukiewicz, “Modeling of InGaN/Si tandem solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. R. Kurtz, P. Faine, and J. M. Olson, “Modeling of two-junction, series connected tandem solar cells using top-cell thickness as an adjustable parameter,” J. Appl. Phys.68(4), 1890–1895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. J. Van Overstraeten and R. P. Mertens, “Heavy doping effects in Si,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1077–1087 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. A. del Alamo and R. M. Swanson, “Modelling of minority-carrier transport in heavily doped silicon emitters,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1127–1136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. J. Boettcher, P. G. Borden, and P. E. Gregory, “The temperature dependence of the efficiency of an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell operating at high concentration,” Electron Dev. Lett.2(4), 88–89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1961

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, A. C.

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Archer, M. J.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baranovskii, S. D.

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benick, J.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A. W.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, A.

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boca, A.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, R. J.

R. J. Boettcher, P. G. Borden, and P. E. Gregory, “The temperature dependence of the efficiency of an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell operating at high concentration,” Electron Dev. Lett.2(4), 88–89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Borden, P. G.

R. J. Boettcher, P. G. Borden, and P. E. Gregory, “The temperature dependence of the efficiency of an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell operating at high concentration,” Electron Dev. Lett.2(4), 88–89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, M. R.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carlin, A. M.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, B.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dehoff, R. R.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

del Alamo, J. A.

J. A. del Alamo and R. M. Swanson, “Modelling of minority-carrier transport in heavily doped silicon emitters,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1127–1136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dimroth, F.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Edmondson, K. M.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L. E.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Faine, P.

S. R. Kurtz, P. Faine, and J. M. Olson, “Modeling of two-junction, series connected tandem solar cells using top-cell thickness as an adjustable parameter,” J. Appl. Phys.68(4), 1890–1895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, C. M.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D. J.

D. J. Friedman, “Progress and challenges for next-generation high-efficiency multijunction solar cells,” Curr. Opin. Solid St. M.14(6), 131–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gandy, T.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gebhard, F.

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ginige, R.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S. W.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grassman, T. J.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, P. E.

R. J. Boettcher, P. G. Borden, and P. E. Gregory, “The temperature dependence of the efficiency of an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell operating at high concentration,” Electron Dev. Lett.2(4), 88–89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guter, W.

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haddad, M.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hermle, M.

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hilgarth, J.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, L.

L. Hsu and W. Walukiewicz, “Modeling of InGaN/Si tandem solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Isella, G.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Isshiki, T.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacoboni, C.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jandieri, K.

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanel, H.-

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, R. R.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, B.

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. R.

S. R. Kurtz, P. Faine, and J. M. Olson, “Modeling of two-junction, series connected tandem solar cells using top-cell thickness as an adjustable parameter,” J. Appl. Phys.68(4), 1890–1895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ladous, C.

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Law, D. C.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lebens, J. A.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, R. P.

R. J. Van Overstraeten and R. P. Mertens, “Heavy doping effects in Si,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1077–1087 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mesropian, S.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mills, M. J.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Modreanu, M.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemeth, I.

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nordstrom, K. B.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ohlmann, J.

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olson, J. M.

S. R. Kurtz, P. Faine, and J. M. Olson, “Modeling of two-junction, series connected tandem solar cells using top-cell thickness as an adjustable parameter,” J. Appl. Phys.68(4), 1890–1895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ottaviani, G.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Peharz, G.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, A. A.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ringel, S. A.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Siefer, G.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, R. M.

J. A. del Alamo and R. M. Swanson, “Modelling of minority-carrier transport in heavily doped silicon emitters,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1127–1136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Unocic, R. R.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Van Overstraeten, R. J.

R. J. Van Overstraeten and R. P. Mertens, “Heavy doping effects in Si,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1077–1087 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Volz, K.

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

L. Hsu and W. Walukiewicz, “Modeling of InGaN/Si tandem solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Witte, W.

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zarem, H. A.

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. J. Archer, D. C. Law, S. Mesropian, M. Haddad, C. M. Fetzer, A. C. Ackerman, C. Ladous, R. R. King, and H. A. Atwater, “GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si epitaxial templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Zarem, J. A. Lebens, K. B. Nordstrom, P. C. Sercel, S. Sanders, L. E. Eng, A. Yariv, and K. J. Vahala, “Effect of Al mole fraction on carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in AlxGa1−xAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(25), 2622–2624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid St. M.

D. J. Friedman, “Progress and challenges for next-generation high-efficiency multijunction solar cells,” Curr. Opin. Solid St. M.14(6), 131–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron Dev. Lett.

R. J. Boettcher, P. G. Borden, and P. E. Gregory, “The temperature dependence of the efficiency of an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell operating at high concentration,” Electron Dev. Lett.2(4), 88–89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.

T. J. Grassman, M. R. Brenner, M. Gonzalez, A. M. Carlin, R. R. Unocic, R. R. Dehoff, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Characterization of Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Materials and Devices for Photovoltaic Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.57(12), 3361–3369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Kurtz, P. Faine, and J. M. Olson, “Modeling of two-junction, series connected tandem solar cells using top-cell thickness as an adjustable parameter,” J. Appl. Phys.68(4), 1890–1895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Hsu and W. Walukiewicz, “Modeling of InGaN/Si tandem solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

K. Volz, A. Beyer, W. Witte, J. Ohlmann, I. Nemeth, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “GaP nucleation on exact Si (0 0 1) substrates for III/V device integration,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 37–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

K. Jandieri, S. D. Baranovskii, W. Stolz, F. Gebhard, W. Guter, M. Hermle, and A. W. Bett, “Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four‐junction spectral beam‐splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(1), 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

R. Ginige, B. Corbett, M. Modreanu, C. Barrett, J. Hilgarth, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, and H.- Kanel, “Characterization of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates and single junction GaAs solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(6), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

D. C. Law, R. R. King, H. Yoon, M. J. Archer, A. Boca, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, and K. M. Edmondson, “Future technology pathways of terrestrial III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(8), 1314–1318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Van Overstraeten and R. P. Mertens, “Heavy doping effects in Si,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1077–1087 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. A. del Alamo and R. M. Swanson, “Modelling of minority-carrier transport in heavily doped silicon emitters,” Solid-State Electron.30(11), 1127–1136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. E. Chieh-Ting Lin, McMahon, J. S. Ward, J. F. Geisz, M. W. Wanlass, J. J. Carapella, W. Olavarria, M. Young, M. A. Steiner, R. M. Frances, A. E. Kibbler, A. Duda, J. M. Olson, E. E. Perl, D. J. Friedman, and J. E. Bowers, “Fabrication of two-terminal metal-interconnected multijunction III-V solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Texas, 2012).

J. F. Geisz, J. M. Olson, M. J. Romero, C. S. Jiang, and A. G. Norman, “Lattice-mismatched GaAsP Solar Cells Grown on Silicon by OMVPE,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Hawaii, 2006), 772–775 (2006).

K. Hayashi, T. Soga, H. Nishikawa, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “MOCVD growth of GaAsP on Si for tandem solar cell application,” in Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Hawaii, 1994) 1890–1893.

NREL, “ASTM (G-173-03),” http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/ .

S. Adachi, Physical Properties of III–V Semiconductor Compounds (John Wiley and Sons, 1992).

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley and Sons, 1981).

M. R. Brozel and G. E. Stillman, Properties of Gallium Arsenide (INSPEC, 1996).

P. Bhattacharya, Properties of lattice-matched and strained Indium Gallium Arsenide (INSPEC, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Triple-junction (a, b) and four-junction (c) series-connected multi-junction solar cell configurations modelled where the interface between Si and InGaAs and the other semiconductor materials is considered as a completely transparent and ideal ohmic contact.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triple-junction mechanically stacked solar cells formed using Si (a) and InGaAs (b) bottom solar cells and a four-junction configuration (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The absorption co-efficients of the materials considered for multi-junction solar cells. The AM1.5d ASTM G173-03 spectrum is shown for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The modelled electrical performance of a Si solar cell mechanically stacked under a dual junction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell as a function of Si thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The modelled electrical performance of an InGaAs solar cell mechanically stacked under a dual junction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell as a function of InGaAs combined emitter and base thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Isoefficiency plot of the combined Si and InGaAs solar cell theoretical efficiencies (%) when stacked under an AlGaAs/GaAs dual junction solar cell as a function of Si (d1) and InGaAs (d2) thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Efficiency versus solar intensity for each technology

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Semiconductor material properties

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulated performance summary for 2-terminal multi-junction configurations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Simulated performance summary at 1-Sun illumination for each of the multi-junction technologies considered for integrating III-V and Si materials

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J L = λ=280nm λ=2500nm qPF(λ)(1 e α(λ)x )Δλ .
J(V)= J o ( e qV/kT 1) J L .
I n (λ)= I n1 (λ) e α(λ) d n1 .
J o =q n 2 i ( D e N A L e + D h N D L h ).
V= i=1 n kT q [ ln( J i + J Li J oi +1) ] .
P max : d(JV) dJ =0.

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