Abstract

We study three different gallium-nitride (GaN) based light emitting diode (LED) cases based on the different locations of the pyramid textures. In case 1, the pyramid texture is located on the sapphire top surface, in case 2, the pyramid texture is locate on the P-GaN top surface, while in case 3, the pyramid texture is located on both the sapphire and P-GaN top surfaces. We study the relationship between the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and angle of slant of the pyramid texture. The optimization of total LEE was highest for case 3 among the three cases. Moreover, the seven escape paths along which most of the escaped photon flux propagated were selected in a simulation of the LEDs. The seven escape paths were used to estimate the slant angle for the optimization of LEE and to precisely analyze the photon escape path.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. J. W. Pan and C. W. Fan, “High luminance hybrid light guide plate for backlight module application,” Opt. Express19(21), 20079–20087 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006.) pp. 91–93.
  3. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A221–A230 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, C. K. Hsu, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with oblique sidewall facets formed by selective growth on SiO2 patterned GaN film,” Opt. Express18(S4Suppl 4), A562–A567 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. J. Lee, “Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo photon simulation,” Appl. Opt.40(9), 1427–1437 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a microstructure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Muth, J. D. Brown, M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, R. M. Kolbas, J. W. Cook, Jr., and J. F. Schetzina, “Absorption coefficient and refractive index of GaN, AlN and AlGaN alloys,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G5.2 (1999).
  17. A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, “Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Proc. SPIE4283, 630–637 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. H. Wang, W. Y. Fu, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Evaluation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes of circular geometry,” Opt. Express17(25), 22311–22319 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a microstructure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, “Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Proc. SPIE4283, 630–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lee, “Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo photon simulation,” Appl. Opt.40(9), 1427–1437 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arif, R. A.

Baba, T.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, “Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Proc. SPIE4283, 630–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Chang, K. H.

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. M.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W. T.

Choi, H. W.

Djuriié, A. B.

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, “Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Proc. SPIE4283, 630–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Fan, C. W.

Fu, W. Y.

Gao, K. F.

Gilchrist, J. F.

Han, P.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. K.

Huang, S. C.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, H.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Kuo, H. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, P. T.

Lai, W. C.

Lee, M. L.

Lee, S. J.

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, “Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Proc. SPIE4283, 630–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. L.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a microstructure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. H.

Pan, J. W.

Sheu, J. K.

Su, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Sun, W. S.

Tansu, N.

Tong, H.

Tu, S. H.

Tu, S. J.

Wang, C. M.

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

Wen, K. S.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, T. H.

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a microstructure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1193–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth298, 219–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids69(2-3), 714–718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, P. Han, and R. H. Horng, “Characteristics of flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3430–3432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a microstructure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Wang, W. Y. Fu, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Evaluation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes of circular geometry,” Opt. Express17(25), 22311–22319 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A221–A230 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, C. K. Hsu, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with oblique sidewall facets formed by selective growth on SiO2 patterned GaN film,” Opt. Express18(S4Suppl 4), A562–A567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pan and C. W. Fan, “High luminance hybrid light guide plate for backlight module application,” Opt. Express19(21), 20079–20087 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, “Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Proc. SPIE4283, 630–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006.) pp. 91–93.

J. F. Muth, J. D. Brown, M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, R. M. Kolbas, J. W. Cook, Jr., and J. F. Schetzina, “Absorption coefficient and refractive index of GaN, AlN and AlGaN alloys,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G5.2 (1999).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the GaN-based LED without the pyramid texture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams of (a) path A and (b) path B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Region A without texture, (b) region B without the texture and (c) region A with a pyramid texture that has a slant angle of 20 degrees in the angular space.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagrams of (a) path C, (b) D and (c) E.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Region C without the texture, (b) region D without the texture, (c) region E without the texture and (d) region C with the texture with a slant angle of 20 degrees in the angular space.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram showing the three cases of GaN-based LEDs: (a) case 1, (b) case 2 and (c) case 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagrams of the seven escape paths.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between the total LEE for case 1 and α.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relationship between the partial LEE of the seven escape paths and α.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relationship between the total LEE for case 2 and β.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relationship between the partial LEE of the seven escape paths and β.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relationship between the total LEE for case 3, α and β.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of each layer in the simulated LED

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optimization results for the three cases

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin 1 ( n air / n P-GaN )= R 1
sin 1 ( n sapphire / n P-GaN )= R 2

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