Abstract

In this study, cup-shaped copper sheets were developed to improve heat dispassion for high-power light emitting diodes (LEDs) array module (3 × 3, 4 × 4, and 5 × 5) using an electroplating technique. The cup-shaped copper sheets were directly contacted with sapphire to enhance the heat dissipation of the chip itself. The lateral emitting light extraction and heat dissipation of high-power LEDs were enhanced and efficient. The surface temperature was not only decreasing but also uniform for each LED chip with the cup-shaped copper heat spreader adoption. The high thermal transmitting performance of cup-shaped copper heat spreader allows thermal resistance reducing 0.7, 0.6, and 0.7 K/W of 3 × 3, 4 × 4, and 5 × 5 LED array module, respectively. In addition, the light output power was increased of 14, 13, and 12% with 3 × 3, 4 × 4, and 5 × 5 LEDs array module using cup-shaped copper sheet at high current injection. High heat dissipation performance and light extraction were obtained by cup-shaped copper sheet with copper bulk and silver mirror.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K. C. Chen, R. W. Chuang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, H. C. Hsu, J. Q. Huang, and K. F. Yang, “High thermal dissipation of ultra high power light-emitting diodes by copper electroplating,” in Proceedings of 57th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 734–736.
  2. L. Yuan, S. Liu, M. Chen, and X. Luo, “Thermal analysis of high power LED array packaging with microchannel cooler,” in Proceedings of 7th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–5.
  3. W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin.87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. F. Wong, P. Malatkar, C. Rick, V. Kulkarni, and I. Chin, “Vibration testing and analysis of ball grid array package solder joints,” in Proceedings of 57th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 373–380.
  6. R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “Effect of resonant cavity in wafer-bonded green InGaN LED with dielectric and silver mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 457–459 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta455(1–2), 21–25 (2006).
  10. L. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal resistance measurement of LED package with multichips,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech.30(4), 632–636 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Narendran and Y. Gu, “Life of LED-based white light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(1), 167–171 (2005).
  12. G. Faekas, Q. V. V. Vader, A. Poppe, and G. Bognar, “Thermal investigation of high power optical device by transient testing,” in Proceedings of 9th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 213–218.
  13. R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High‐power InGaN single‐quantum‐well‐structure blue and violet light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal resistance measurement of LED package with multichips,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech.30(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “Effect of resonant cavity in wafer-bonded green InGaN LED with dielectric and silver mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 457–459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta455(1–2), 21–25 (2006).

2005 (2)

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran and Y. Gu, “Life of LED-based white light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(1), 167–171 (2005).

2004 (1)

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin.87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High‐power InGaN single‐quantum‐well‐structure blue and violet light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. J.

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. M.

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C. C.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta455(1–2), 21–25 (2006).

Egawa, T.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran and Y. Gu, “Life of LED-based white light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(1), 167–171 (2005).

Hong, J. S.

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “Effect of resonant cavity in wafer-bonded green InGaN LED with dielectric and silver mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 457–459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, H. Y.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “Effect of resonant cavity in wafer-bonded green InGaN LED with dielectric and silver mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 457–459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High‐power InGaN single‐quantum‐well‐structure blue and violet light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. H.

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta455(1–2), 21–25 (2006).

Jimbo, T.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, L.

L. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal resistance measurement of LED package with multichips,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech.30(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta455(1–2), 21–25 (2006).

Lee, C. E.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. I.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High‐power InGaN single‐quantum‐well‐structure blue and violet light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High‐power InGaN single‐quantum‐well‐structure blue and violet light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran and Y. Gu, “Life of LED-based white light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(1), 167–171 (2005).

Pan, K. F.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High‐power InGaN single‐quantum‐well‐structure blue and violet light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Setomoto, T.

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin.87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M. W.

L. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal resistance measurement of LED package with multichips,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech.30(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta455(1–2), 21–25 (2006).

Su, Y. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin.87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, T.

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin.87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “Effect of resonant cavity in wafer-bonded green InGaN LED with dielectric and silver mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 457–459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “Effect of resonant cavity in wafer-bonded green InGaN LED with dielectric and silver mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 457–459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. H. Horng, C. C. Chiang, H. Y. Hsiao, X. Zheng, D. S. Wuu, and H. I. Lin, “Improved thermal management of GaN/sapphire light-emitting diodes embedded in reflective heat spreaders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High‐power InGaN single‐quantum‐well‐structure blue and violet light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(13), 1868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Hsiao, C. C. Chiang, D. S. Wuu, Y. L. Tsai, and H. I. Lin, “Novel device design for high-power InGaN/sapphire LEDs using copper heat spreader with reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1281–1286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “Effect of resonant cavity in wafer-bonded green InGaN LED with dielectric and silver mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 457–459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran and Y. Gu, “Life of LED-based white light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(1), 167–171 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. (1)

L. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal resistance measurement of LED package with multichips,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech.30(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

R. H. Horng, J. S. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, D. S. Wuu, C. M. Chen, and C. J. Chen, “Optimized thermal management from a chip to a heat sink for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2203–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thermal stability of InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes on an AlN/sapphire template,” J. Appl. Phys.95(6), 3170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin.87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thermochim. Acta (1)

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta455(1–2), 21–25 (2006).

Other (4)

S. F. Wong, P. Malatkar, C. Rick, V. Kulkarni, and I. Chin, “Vibration testing and analysis of ball grid array package solder joints,” in Proceedings of 57th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 373–380.

K. C. Chen, R. W. Chuang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, H. C. Hsu, J. Q. Huang, and K. F. Yang, “High thermal dissipation of ultra high power light-emitting diodes by copper electroplating,” in Proceedings of 57th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 734–736.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication processes flow of LED array modules, (a) chip fixed, (b) mirror deposition, (c) electroplating, and (d) PR removal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of as-fabricated InGaN LEDs with copper heat spreader, (a) 3 × 3 LEDs array, (b) 4 × 4 LEDs array, and (c) LEDs 5 × 5 array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal resistance measured by T3ster and compared with the original structure and copper heat spreader are packaged on Al MCPCB, (a) 3 × 3 LEDs array, (b) 4 × 4 LED arrays, and (c) 5 × 5 LEDs array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface temperature distribution at injection current of 350mA with (a) array LEDs on Al MCPCB and (b) array LEDs with copper heat spreader on Al MCPCB.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light output power and light efficiency of the array LEDs packaged with original structure and cup-shaped copper heat spreader, (a) 3 × 3 LED array, (b) 4 × 4 LED array, and (c) 5 × 5 LEDs array.

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