Abstract

In this paper, we present the integration of an absorbing photonic crystal within a monocrystalline silicon thin film photovoltaic stack fabricated without epitaxy. Finite difference time domain optical simulations are performed in order to design one- and two-dimensional photonic crystals to assist crystalline silicon solar cells. The simulations show that the 1D and 2D patterned solar cell stacks would have an increased integrated absorption in the crystalline silicon layer would increase of respectively 38% and 50%, when compared to a similar but unpatterned stack, in the whole wavelength range between 300 nm and 1100 nm. In order to fabricate such patterned stacks, we developed an effective set of processes based on laser holographic lithography, reactive ion etching and inductively coupled plasma etching. Optical measurements performed on the patterned stacks highlight the significant absorption increase achieved in the whole wavelength range of interest, as expected by simulation. Moreover, we show that with this design, the angle of incidence has almost no influence on the absorption for angles as high as around 60°.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

Abramov, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, K. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, C. O.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depauw, V.

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dewan, R.

Dross, F.

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

El Daif, O.

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Hajjam, K.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fave, A.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franken, R. H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Caurel, E.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gerelli, E.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomard, G.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I.

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heonsu, L.

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horita, S.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kaminski, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. S.

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. W.

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knipp, D.

Lee, Y. T.

Lemiti, M.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letartre, X.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Löper, P.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Luyssaert, B.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marinkovic, M.

Matsumura, H.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, K.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noriega, R.

Ohdaira, K.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peretti, R.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phadke, S.

Polman, A.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poortmans, J.

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rath, J. K.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roh, Y. G.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, L. Heonsu, B. S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and Y. H. Choe, “Photonic Crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(4A), 1384–1387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

Schropp, R. E. I.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. El Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt.14(2), 024011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95, S32– S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stolk, R. L.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trompoukis, C.

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxy-free silicon for ultrathin solar cells,” Proc. SPIE8312, 831207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turberfield, A. J.

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R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “SOI nanophotonic waveguide structures fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Nanostructures2(2), 81–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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http://www.lumerical.com/ .

Developed by Ghent University, see http://camfr.sourceforge.net/ .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Complete patterned stack studied, in the case of a 1D PC. Photogenerated carriers originating from the c-Si active layer are collected through the ITO and the Al layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated absorption spectra of the patterned 2D and 1D PC c-Si layer with the same period, sff and etching depth (L = 0.61 µm, sff = 35% and h = 0.14 µm) compared to the one of a planar c-Si layer of the same thickness (1 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated absorption spectra averaged on both TE and TM polarizations in (a) the whole stack, (b) the ITO layer and (c) the c-Si layer for the 1D and 2D PC patterned stacks (L, sff and h set to 0.61 µm, 35% and 0.14 µm respectively).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Main steps of the processes enabling to generate the patterned stack as a 1D and 2D PC through LHL (a, b), RIE(c, e) and ICP (d) combined with (f) final sputtering.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top (a), (c) and profile (b), (d) view of a c-Si layer patterned as a 1D network (L ≈0.55 µm, D ≈0.28 µm) and a 2D network of round holes (L ≈0.55 µm, D ≈0.35 µm) into a 0.18–0.25 µm depth. Pictures obtained by SEM after removing the hard mask layer and before ITO deposition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the measured and simulated absorption spectra for the (a) 1D and (b) 2D patterned stacks.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The measured absorption spectra comparison between the (a) 1D and (b) 2D patterned and the unpatterned stacks with and without the front ITO layer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) the incident angle dependence comparison between simulation and measurement of the 1D and 2D patterned stacks, as well as a reference stack, the absorption spectra comparison at 26° incident angle in (b) 1D patterned stack and (c) 2D patterned stack.

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