Abstract

We analyze energy consumption in optical modulators operated in depletion and intended for low-power interconnect applications. We include dynamic dissipation from charging modulator capacitance and net energy consumption from absorption and photocurrent, both in reverse and small forward bias. We show that dynamic dissipation can be independent of static bias, though only with specific kinds of bias circuits. We derive simple expressions for the effects of photocurrent on energy consumption, valid in both reverse and small forward bias. Though electroabsorption modulators with large reverse bias have substantial energy penalties from photocurrent dissipation, we argue that modulator diodes with thin depletion regions and operating in small reverse and/or forward bias could have little or no such photocurrent energy penalty, even conceivably being more energy-efficient than an ideal loss-less modulator.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance converters,” Opt. Lett.14(2), 146–148 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron.11, 155–168 (1997).
  3. D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A Technology Roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(1), 55–76 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. T. Reed, G. Mashonovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot electro-absorption modulator,” CLEO (May 16–21, 2010), San Jose, CA, Paper CTuA5.
  21. R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 198–209 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” 8th Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics, London, Sept. 2011, Paper P1.9.
  25. S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. K. Tharmalingam, “Optical absorption in the presence of a uniform field,” Phys. Rev.130(6), 2204–2206 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. D. Dow and D. Redfield, “Electroabsorption in semiconductors: the excitonic absorption edge,” Phys. Rev. B1(8), 3358–3371 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: The quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6976–6982 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. N. Theis and P. M. Solomon, “In quest of the “next switch”: prospects for greatly reduced power dissipation in a successor to the silicon field-effect transistor,” Proc. IEEE98(12), 2005–2014 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications-part I: energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 245–260 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  41. S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express18(25), 25596–25607 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  43. S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. Horowitz, “A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits43(5), 1235–1246 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  44. M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  45. K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, D. A. B. Miller, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, and N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electroabsorption and self-biased self-electrooptic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Paper MB3, Topical Meeting on Quantum Optoelectronics, Salt Lake City, March 1991 (Optical Society of America, 1991).
  46. J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2012

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications-part I: energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 245–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. Horowitz, “A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits43(5), 1235–1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron.11, 155–168 (1997).

1996

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A Technology Roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance converters,” Opt. Lett.14(2), 146–148 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: The quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. D. Dow and D. Redfield, “Electroabsorption in semiconductors: the excitonic absorption edge,” Phys. Rev. B1(8), 3358–3371 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1963

K. Tharmalingam, “Optical absorption in the presence of a uniform field,” Phys. Rev.130(6), 2204–2206 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Asom, M. T.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Burrus, C. A.

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Cavailles, J. A.

J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: The quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Claussen, S. A.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express18(25), 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Ding, R.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dow, J. D.

J. D. Dow and D. Redfield, “Electroabsorption in semiconductors: the excitonic absorption edge,” Phys. Rev. B1(8), 3358–3371 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Duan, N.

Dumon, P.

Edwards, E. H.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emami-Neyestanak, A.

S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. Horowitz, “A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits43(5), 1235–1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

English, J. H.

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Fei, E. T.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fidaner, O.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fong, J.

Fournier, M.

Fox, A. M.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goossen, K. W.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gould, M.

Grosse, P.

Harris, J. S.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helman, N. C.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, R. L.

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Horowitz, M.

S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. Horowitz, “A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits43(5), 1235–1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Kamins, T. I.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapur, P.

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K.-H.

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A Technology Roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

Kuo, Y.-H.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.-L.

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lentine, A. L.

Li, G.

Li Kam Wa, P.

J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Livescu, G.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

Lum, R. M.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Luo, Y.

Ly-Gagnon, D. S.

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Mashonovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashonovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express18(25), 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron.11, 155–168 (1997).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A Technology Roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance converters,” Opt. Lett.14(2), 146–148 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: The quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Palermo, S.

S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. Horowitz, “A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits43(5), 1235–1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paul, D. J.

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Qing, F.

Raj, K.

Rasigade, G.

Redfield, D.

J. D. Dow and D. Redfield, “Electroabsorption in semiconductors: the excitonic absorption edge,” Phys. Rev. B1(8), 3358–3371 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Ren, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, Y.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express18(25), 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchis, P.

Saraswat, K. C.

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: The quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

Solomon, P. M.

T. N. Theis and P. M. Solomon, “In quest of the “next switch”: prospects for greatly reduced power dissipation in a successor to the silicon field-effect transistor,” Proc. IEEE98(12), 2005–2014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tasyurek, E.

Tell, B.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Tharmalingam, K.

K. Tharmalingam, “Optical absorption in the presence of a uniform field,” Phys. Rev.130(6), 2204–2206 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Theis, T. N.

T. N. Theis and P. M. Solomon, “In quest of the “next switch”: prospects for greatly reduced power dissipation in a successor to the silicon field-effect transistor,” Proc. IEEE98(12), 2005–2014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashonovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications-part I: energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 245–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vinattieri, A.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wahl, P.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

Weiner, J. S.

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yao, J.

Young, R. W.

Yu, M.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Ziebell, M.

Zortman, W. A.

AIP Advances

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances1(3), 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, R. L. Hillman, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Electroabsorption in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum well waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(16), 1098–1100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. S. Weiner, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and C. A. Burrus, “Low voltage modulator and self-biased self-electro-optic effect device,” Electron. Lett.23(2), 75–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electroabsorption and exciton saturation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(10), 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cavailles, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. Li Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurements of electron and hole sweep-out from quantum wells and modeling of photoinduced field screening dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2486–2497 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Knox, B. Tell, A. Vinattieri, and M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators for low-photocurrent applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(12), 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties in Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A Technology Roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications-part I: energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 245–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits

S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. Horowitz, “A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits43(5), 1235–1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.1(10), 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Compact performance models and comparisons for gigascale on-chip global interconnect technologies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.56(9), 1787–1798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron.

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron.11, 155–168 (1997).

Nat. Photonics

G. T. Reed, G. Mashonovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express18(25), 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

K. Tharmalingam, “Optical absorption in the presence of a uniform field,” Phys. Rev.130(6), 2204–2206 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. D. Dow and D. Redfield, “Electroabsorption in semiconductors: the excitonic absorption edge,” Phys. Rev. B1(8), 3358–3371 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: The quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Theis and P. M. Solomon, “In quest of the “next switch”: prospects for greatly reduced power dissipation in a successor to the silicon field-effect transistor,” Proc. IEEE98(12), 2005–2014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, E. Fei, G. Shambat, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge quantum well resonator modulators,” 8th Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics, London, Sept. 2011, Paper P1.9.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot electro-absorption modulator,” CLEO (May 16–21, 2010), San Jose, CA, Paper CTuA5.

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, D. A. B. Miller, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, and N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electroabsorption and self-biased self-electrooptic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Paper MB3, Topical Meeting on Quantum Optoelectronics, Salt Lake City, March 1991 (Optical Society of America, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Example drive circuit for a p-i-n modulator diode. (b) Equivalent circuit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diode band diagrams at (a) zero bias; (b) reverse bias V TOT ; (c) forward bias V F .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diode band structures for (a) indirect gap materials and (b) heterostructures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example drive circuit for a forward-biased modulator diode.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E outo ( V TOT )=[ 1η( V TOT ) ] E ino
E abs ( V TOT )=η( V TOT ) E ino
E bittrans =(1/2)| E outo ( V DD + V B ) E outo ( V B ) |= E ino | η hi η lo |/2
E bittot =(1/2){ [ E PCA ( V DD + V B )+ E outo ( V DD + V B ) ]+[ E PCA ( V B )+ E outo ( V B ) ] }
β1/( 2+ μ lo )
β( 1 η hi )/( 2+ μ lo )

Metrics