Abstract

We present the enhancement of wall-plug efficiency in vertical InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (V-LEDs) by improved current spreading with a novel Al2O3 current blocking layer (CBL). The Al2O3 CBL deposited by electron-beam evaporation shows high transmittance and good corrosion resistance to acidic solutions. V-LEDs with an Al2O3 CBL show similar light output power but lower forward voltage as compared to those with a SiO2 CBL deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. As a result, the wall-plug efficiency of V-LEDs with an Al2O3 CBL at 500 mA was improved by 5% as compared to those with a SiO2 CBL, and by 19% as compared to those without a CBL.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (4)

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Kuo, Y.-S. Kim, M.-L. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed Nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, S.-N. Lee, and K.-H. Baik, “Design and fabrication of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A937–A942 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-S4-A937 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. H. Son and J.-L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5466 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, J. W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11025 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

N. Serpone, “Is the band gap of pristine TiO(2) narrowed by anion- and cation-doping of titanium dioxide in second-generation photocatalysts?” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(48), 24287–24293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. K. Kim, J.-L. Lee, J. W. Lee, H. Eoi Shin, Y. Jo Park, and T. Kim, “Low resistance Pd/Au contacts to p-type GaN using surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2953–2955 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K.-H.

Chang, S. J.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. R.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Chen, S.-L.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-M.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Choi, J.

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chun, W.-J.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Domen, K.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, C. R.

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ee, H.-S.

Eoi Shin, H.

J. K. Kim, J.-L. Lee, J. W. Lee, H. Eoi Shin, Y. Jo Park, and T. Kim, “Low resistance Pd/Au contacts to p-type GaN using surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2953–2955 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, H.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garces, N. Y.

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hara, M.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrand, R.

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hite, J. K.

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M.-L.

M.-L. Kuo, Y.-S. Kim, M.-L. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed Nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. K.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Ishikawa, A.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. W.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, J.-W.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. H.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. K.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jo Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, J.-L. Lee, J. W. Lee, H. Eoi Shin, Y. Jo Park, and T. Kim, “Low resistance Pd/Au contacts to p-type GaN using surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2953–2955 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, M.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. J.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, J.-L. Lee, J. W. Lee, H. Eoi Shin, Y. Jo Park, and T. Kim, “Low resistance Pd/Au contacts to p-type GaN using surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2953–2955 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-K.

Kim, S.-K.

Kim, T.

J. K. Kim, J.-L. Lee, J. W. Lee, H. Eoi Shin, Y. Jo Park, and T. Kim, “Low resistance Pd/Au contacts to p-type GaN using surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2953–2955 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-S.

M.-L. Kuo, Y.-S. Kim, M.-L. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed Nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, J. N.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kou, C. H.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, H.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Kuo, M.-L.

M.-L. Kuo, Y.-S. Kim, M.-L. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed Nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, H.

Kwon, S.-H.

Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

Lee, J.-L.

J. H. Son and J.-L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5466 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, J.-L. Lee, J. W. Lee, H. Eoi Shin, Y. Jo Park, and T. Kim, “Low resistance Pd/Au contacts to p-type GaN using surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2953–2955 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-N.

Lee, W.-C.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Lin, S.-Y.

M.-L. Kuo, Y.-S. Kim, M.-L. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed Nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Luo, Y.

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mastro, M. A.

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, Y.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, D. J.

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y.-T.

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-G.

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. W.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilling, J.

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Seong, T.-Y.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Serpone, N.

N. Serpone, “Is the band gap of pristine TiO(2) narrowed by anion- and cation-doping of titanium dioxide in second-generation photocatalysts?” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(48), 24287–24293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shei, S. C.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

J. H. Son and J.-L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5466 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. O.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-O.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takata, T.

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-A.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Uang, K.-M.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Wang, S.-J.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-Y.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, T. C.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. K.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

Zolper, J. C.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

N. Nepal, N. Y. Garces, D. J. Meyer, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy., “Assessment of GaN surface pretreatment for atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. K. Kim, J.-L. Lee, J. W. Lee, H. Eoi Shin, Y. Jo Park, and T. Kim, “Low resistance Pd/Au contacts to p-type GaN using surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2953–2955 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based Ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 688–690 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, Y. Luo, R. B. Wehrspohn, R. Hillebrand, J. Schilling, and U. Gösele, “Perfect two-dimensional porous alumina photonic crystals with duplex oxide layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 4757–4762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

N. Serpone, “Is the band gap of pristine TiO(2) narrowed by anion- and cation-doping of titanium dioxide in second-generation photocatalysts?” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(48), 24287–24293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-J. Chun, A. Ishikawa, H. Fujisawa, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, M. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Domen, “Conduction and valence band positions of Ta2O5, TaON, and Ta3N5 by UPS and electrochemical methods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1798–1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(4), 041203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M.-L. Kuo, Y.-S. Kim, M.-L. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed Nano-LED emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, T. Gessmann, and J. K. Kim, in Light Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2003), ch. 8.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of V-LEDs fabricated with an Al2O3 CBL. (b) Optical microscopy image of V-LEDs with an Al2O3 CBL after laser lift-off (left) and EL image at 5 mA (right). The n-electrode was not deposited. (c) Simulated current density distribution in the active region with and without CBL at 500 mA. (d) Current density profiles along the dotted line from Fig. 1(c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light transmittance spectra of an Al2O3 (2000 Å) CBL deposited by electron-beam deposition and a SiO2 (2000 Å) CBL deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth profiles of an Al2O3 (2000 Å) CBL before and after piranha solution and aqua regia treatments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Light output power of V-LEDs with and without CBL as a function of injection current. (b) Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of V-LEDs with and without CBL. Inset table displays the forward voltage of the V-LEDs at 20, 350, and 500 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Efficiency droop behavior of V-LEDs: Wall-plug efficiency of V-LEDs with and without CBL as a function of injection current.

Equations (1)

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L s = t n ideal kT ρ J 0 e ,

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