Abstract

We show that it is possible to produce an efficient solution-processable phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) OLED with a 32 lm/W power efficiency at 100 cd/m2 without using a charge transporting host or any improvements in light extraction. This is achieved by using the dendrimer architecture to control inter-chromophore interactions. The effects of using 4,4′,4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)triphenylamine (TCTA) as a charge transporting host and using a double dendron structure to further reduce inter-chromophore interactions are also reported.

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  1. M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. A. King, P. J. Spellane, and R. J. Watts, “Excited-state properties of a triply ortho-metalated iridium(III) complex,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.107(5), 1431–1432 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Shimoda, K. Morii, S. Seki, and H. Kiguchi, “Inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer displays,” MRS Bull.28(11), 821–827 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. L. Burn, S. C. Lo, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of light-emitting dendrimers for displays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(13), 1675–1688 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).
  11. S. C. Lo, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Synthesis and properties of highly efficient electroluminescent green phosphorescent iridium cored dendrimers,” Macromolecules36(26), 9721–9730 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. A. Zhao, S. J. Liu, and W. Huang, “Promising optoelectronic materials: polymers containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.31(9-10), 794–807 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, and F. Sato, “Improvement of emission efficiency in polymer light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent polymers,” Thin Solid Films445(2), 353–357 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Zhao, S. J. Liu, and W. Huang, “Promising optoelectronic materials: polymers containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.31(9-10), 794–807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. L. Burn, S. C. Lo, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of light-emitting dendrimers for displays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(13), 1675–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. Shimoda, K. Morii, S. Seki, and H. Kiguchi, “Inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer displays,” MRS Bull.28(11), 821–827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Synthesis and properties of highly efficient electroluminescent green phosphorescent iridium cored dendrimers,” Macromolecules36(26), 9721–9730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, and F. Sato, “Improvement of emission efficiency in polymer light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent polymers,” Thin Solid Films445(2), 353–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

2001

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. A. King, P. J. Spellane, and R. J. Watts, “Excited-state properties of a triply ortho-metalated iridium(III) complex,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.107(5), 1431–1432 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anthopoulos, T. D.

S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arias-Pardilla, J.

J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, P. V.

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bolink, H. J.

J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burn, P. L.

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Burn, S. C. Lo, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of light-emitting dendrimers for displays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(13), 1675–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Synthesis and properties of highly efficient electroluminescent green phosphorescent iridium cored dendrimers,” Macromolecules36(26), 9721–9730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

Burrows, P. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Gans, B. J.

E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dhagat, P.

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gil-Rubio, J.

J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, J. P.

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haverinen, H. M.

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebner, T. R.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holder, E.

E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

Q. A. Zhao, S. J. Liu, and W. Huang, “Promising optoelectronic materials: polymers containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.31(9-10), 794–807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Igarashi, T.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inada, H.

Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, H.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jabbour, G. E.

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, A. C.

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamachi, M.

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiguchi, H.

T. Shimoda, K. Morii, S. Seki, and H. Kiguchi, “Inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer displays,” MRS Bull.28(11), 821–827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

King, K. A.

K. A. King, P. J. Spellane, and R. J. Watts, “Excited-state properties of a triply ortho-metalated iridium(III) complex,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.107(5), 1431–1432 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, A.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, K.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, Y.

Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. Y.

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lamansky, S.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levell, J. W.

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. J.

Q. A. Zhao, S. J. Liu, and W. Huang, “Promising optoelectronic materials: polymers containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.31(9-10), 794–807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S. C.

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Burn, S. C. Lo, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of light-emitting dendrimers for displays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(13), 1675–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Synthesis and properties of highly efficient electroluminescent green phosphorescent iridium cored dendrimers,” Macromolecules36(26), 9721–9730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

Lu, M. H.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magennis, S. W.

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

Male, N. A. H.

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

Marcy, D.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marin, V.

E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Markham, J. P. J.

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

Morii, K.

T. Shimoda, K. Morii, S. Seki, and H. Kiguchi, “Inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer displays,” MRS Bull.28(11), 821–827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Namdas, E. B.

S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Synthesis and properties of highly efficient electroluminescent green phosphorescent iridium cored dendrimers,” Macromolecules36(26), 9721–9730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noma, N.

Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, D. F.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, H.

Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, S.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, J.

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salata, O. V.

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

Samuel, I. D. W.

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Burn, S. C. Lo, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of light-emitting dendrimers for displays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(13), 1675–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Synthesis and properties of highly efficient electroluminescent green phosphorescent iridium cored dendrimers,” Macromolecules36(26), 9721–9730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

Sato, F.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, and F. Sato, “Improvement of emission efficiency in polymer light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent polymers,” Thin Solid Films445(2), 353–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, U. S.

E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seki, S.

T. Shimoda, K. Morii, S. Seki, and H. Kiguchi, “Inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer displays,” MRS Bull.28(11), 821–827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shiina, Y.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoda, T.

T. Shimoda, K. Morii, S. Seki, and H. Kiguchi, “Inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer displays,” MRS Bull.28(11), 821–827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirane, K.

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirota, Y.

Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shoustikov, A.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, S.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spellane, P. J.

K. A. King, P. J. Spellane, and R. J. Watts, “Excited-state properties of a triply ortho-metalated iridium(III) complex,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.107(5), 1431–1432 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, and F. Sato, “Improvement of emission efficiency in polymer light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent polymers,” Thin Solid Films445(2), 353–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takehira, K.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tekin, E.

E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tobita, S.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokito, S.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, and F. Sato, “Improvement of emission efficiency in polymer light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent polymers,” Thin Solid Films445(2), 353–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vicente, J.

J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. J.

K. A. King, P. J. Spellane, and R. J. Watts, “Excited-state properties of a triply ortho-metalated iridium(III) complex,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.107(5), 1431–1432 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, M. F.

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ying, L.

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshihara, T.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, Y.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. Q.

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q. A.

Q. A. Zhao, S. J. Liu, and W. Huang, “Promising optoelectronic materials: polymers containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.31(9-10), 794–807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, G. J.

J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J. H.

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

P. L. Burn, S. C. Lo, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of light-emitting dendrimers for displays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(13), 1675–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, N. A. H. Male, J. P. J. Markham, S. W. Magennis, P. L. Burn, O. V. Salata, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green phosphorescent dendrimer for light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14, 975 (2002).

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuwabara, H. Ogawa, H. Inada, N. Noma, and Y. Shirota, “Thermally stable mulitlayered organic electrolumiescent devices using novel strarburst molecules, 4,4',4”-tris(N-carbazyol)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4',4”-tris(3-methylphenylphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (M-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)6(9), 677–679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lo, T. D. Anthopoulos, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Encapsulated cores: Host-free organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processible electrophosphorescent dendrimers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(16), 1945–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Suzuki, S. Tokito, F. Sato, T. Igarashi, K. Kondo, T. Koyama, and T. Yamaguchi, “Highly efficient polymer light-emitting devices using ambipolar phosphorescent polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(10), 103507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

K. A. King, P. J. Spellane, and R. J. Watts, “Excited-state properties of a triply ortho-metalated iridium(III) complex,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.107(5), 1431–1432 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys.90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Organomet. Chem.

L. Ying, J. H. Zou, A. Q. Zhang, B. Chen, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain,” J. Organomet. Chem.694(17), 2727–2734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry

J. Vicente, J. Gil-Rubio, G. J. Zhou, H. J. Bolink, and J. Arias-Pardilla, “Synthesis and luminescence of poly(phenylacetylene)s with pendant iridium complexes and carbazole groups,” Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry48(17), 3744–3757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Rapid Commun.

Q. A. Zhao, S. J. Liu, and W. Huang, “Promising optoelectronic materials: polymers containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.31(9-10), 794–807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tekin, E. Holder, V. Marin, B. J. de Gans, and U. S. Schubert, “Ink-jet printing of luminescent ruthenium- and iridium-containing polymers for applications in light-emitting devices,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.26(4), 293–297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

S. C. Lo, E. B. Namdas, P. L. Burn, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Synthesis and properties of highly efficient electroluminescent green phosphorescent iridium cored dendrimers,” Macromolecules36(26), 9721–9730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lai, J. W. Levell, A. C. Jackson, S. C. Lo, P. V. Bernhardt, I. D. W. Samuel, and P. L. Burn, “A phosphorescent poly(dendrimer) containing iridium(III) complexes: synthesis and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules43(17), 6986–6994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull.

T. Shimoda, K. Morii, S. Seki, and H. Kiguchi, “Inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer displays,” MRS Bull.28(11), 821–827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Org. Electron.

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, F. Sato, M. Kamachi, and K. Shirane, “High-efficiency phosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 105–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

K. Suzuki, A. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, K. Takehira, T. Yoshihara, H. Ishida, Y. Shiina, S. Oishi, and S. Tobita, “Reevaluation of absolute luminescence quantum yields of standard solutions using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere and a back-thinned CCD detector,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(42), 9850–9860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polym. Chem.

J. P. Gunning, J. W. Levell, M. F. Wyatt, P. L. Burn, J. Robertson, and I. D. W. Samuel, “The development of poly(dendrimer)s for advanced processing,” Polym. Chem.1(5), 730–738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S. Tokito, M. Suzuki, and F. Sato, “Improvement of emission efficiency in polymer light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent polymers,” Thin Solid Films445(2), 353–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The materials structures of phosphorescent polymer 1, poly(dendrimer) 2 and poly(dendrimer) 3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption (left panel), photoluminescence (center panel) and electroluminescence (right panel) of a neat film of 2 (thin black line, device A for EL), a blended film of 20 wt% 2 in TCTA (dashed thin blue line, device B for EL) and a neat film of 3 (thick red line, device C for EL).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current density (A) and brightness (B) of the devices versus voltage. The emissive layer was a neat film of 2 (device A, black line), a blended film of 2, 20 wt% in TCTA (device B, dashed blue line) and a neat film of 3 (device C, red line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

External quantum efficiency (A) and power efficiency (B) of the devices versus brightness. The emissive layer was a neat film of 2 (device A, black line), a blended film of 20 wt% of 2 in TCTA (device B, dashed blue line) and a neat film of 3 (device C, red line).

Metrics