Abstract

Plasmonic light trapping in thin film solar cells is investigated using full-wave electromagnetic simulations. Light absorption in the semiconductor layer with three standard plasmonic solar cell geometries is compared to absorption in a flat layer. We identify near-field absorption enhancement due to the excitation of localized surface plasmons but find that it is not necessary for strong light trapping in these configurations: significant enhancements are also found if the real metal is replaced by a perfect conductor, where scattering is the only available enhancement mechanism. The absorption in a 60 nm thick organic semiconductor film is found to be enhanced by up to 19% using dispersed silver nanoparticles, and up to 13% using a nanostructured electrode. External in-scattering nanoparticles strongly limit semiconductor absorption via back-reflection.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (7)

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express19(12), 11256–11263 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic backcontact grating for P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells enabling strong optical absorption increased in all polarizations,” Opt. Express19(15), 14200–14209 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

W. Wang, S. M. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. L. Lu, and S. C. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee and P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. S. Kim, D. Y. Lee, and K. Cho, “High efficiency polymer solar cells with wet deposited plasmonic gold nanodots,” Org. Electron.10(3), 416–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

K. Tvingstedt, N. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Papanikolaou, “Optical properties of metallic nanoparticle arrays on a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood., “Enhanced optical absorption for photovoltaics via excitation of waveguide and plasmon-polariton modes,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2825–2827 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Minimizing optical losses in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.86(4), 721–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Leveque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.100(12), 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Kim and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of Au and Ag nanoparticles in efficiency enhancement of poly(3-octylthiophene)/C-60 bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 203113 (2005).

S. R. Forrest, “The limits to organic photovoltaic cell efficiency,” MRS Bull.30(01), 28–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Wannemacher, “Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films,” Opt. Commun.195(1-4), 107–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-Constants of Noble-Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M. E.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Bahng, J. H.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express19(12), 11256–11263 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express19(12), 11256–11263 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. L.

K. Kim and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of Au and Ag nanoparticles in efficiency enhancement of poly(3-octylthiophene)/C-60 bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 203113 (2005).

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cha, S. H.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. C.

W. Wang, S. M. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. L. Lu, and S. C. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. S. Kim, D. Y. Lee, and K. Cho, “High efficiency polymer solar cells with wet deposited plasmonic gold nanodots,” Org. Electron.10(3), 416–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. W.

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-Constants of Noble-Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cintra, S.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cocoyer, C.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, R. M.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Bettignies, R.

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Denk, P.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
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G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
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D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, R.

R. Dunbar, H. Hesse, D. Lembke, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Light-trapping plasmonic nanovoid arrays,” Phys. Rev. B (accepted).

Dunbar, R. B.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forberich, K.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
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S. R. Forrest, “The limits to organic photovoltaic cell efficiency,” MRS Bull.30(01), 28–32 (2005).
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B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geffroy, B.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

Hassani-Afshar, A.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, H.

R. Dunbar, H. Hesse, D. Lembke, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Light-trapping plasmonic nanovoid arrays,” Phys. Rev. B (accepted).

Hesse, H. C.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hingerl, K.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. J.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

Im, S. H.

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inganäs, O.

K. Tvingstedt, N. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. H.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, J.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
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T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. S. Kim, D. Y. Lee, and K. Cho, “High efficiency polymer solar cells with wet deposited plasmonic gold nanodots,” Org. Electron.10(3), 416–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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K. Kim and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of Au and Ag nanoparticles in efficiency enhancement of poly(3-octylthiophene)/C-60 bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 203113 (2005).

Kim, S.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. C.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotov, N. A.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
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Lal, N. N.

Lee, D. Y.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. S. Kim, D. Y. Lee, and K. Cho, “High efficiency polymer solar cells with wet deposited plasmonic gold nanodots,” Org. Electron.10(3), 416–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. S. Kim, D. Y. Lee, and K. Cho, “High efficiency polymer solar cells with wet deposited plasmonic gold nanodots,” Org. Electron.10(3), 416–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee and P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lembke, D.

R. Dunbar, H. Hesse, D. Lembke, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Light-trapping plasmonic nanovoid arrays,” Phys. Rev. B (accepted).

Leo, K.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, G.

G. Leveque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.100(12), 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

Li, J.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
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W. Wang, S. M. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. L. Lu, and S. C. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
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N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
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Mahajan, S.

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express19(12), 11256–11263 (2011).
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R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

G. Leveque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.100(12), 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matheu, P.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Minimizing optical losses in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.86(4), 721–727 (2007).
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Min, C. J.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S. J.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
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Moulé, A. J.

A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Minimizing optical losses in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.86(4), 721–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nah, Y. C.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. H.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

Osgood, R. M.

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
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Papanikolaou, N.

N. Papanikolaou, “Optical properties of metallic nanoparticle arrays on a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235426 (2007).
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D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. S. Kim, D. Y. Lee, and K. Cho, “High efficiency polymer solar cells with wet deposited plasmonic gold nanodots,” Org. Electron.10(3), 416–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. O.

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Persson, N.

K. Tvingstedt, N. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

J. Y. Lee and P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Rahachou, A.

K. Tvingstedt, N. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, P.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rand, B. P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, T. H.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, K.

W. Wang, S. M. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. L. Lu, and S. C. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riede, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rocha, L.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rowlen, K. L.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A. E.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Mende, L.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dunbar, H. Hesse, D. Lembke, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Light-trapping plasmonic nanovoid arrays,” Phys. Rev. B (accepted).

Schropp, R. E. I.

Sefunc, M. A.

Seifter, J.

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sentein, C.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. H.

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H. J.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shin, W. S.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sicot, L.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, J. K.

Soares, B. F.

Song, M.

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, Y.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tvingstedt, K.

K. Tvingstedt, N. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van de Lagemaat, J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Veronis, G.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M. A.

Waldauf, C.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

Wang, D. H.

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. L.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, S. M. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. L. Lu, and S. C. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wannemacher, R.

R. Wannemacher, “Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films,” Opt. Commun.195(1-4), 107–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weickert, J.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiedemann, W.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. M.

W. Wang, S. M. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. L. Lu, and S. C. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xue, M.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B. Q.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. F.

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zozoulenko, I. V.

K. Tvingstedt, N. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

C. H. Kim, S. H. Cha, S. C. Kim, M. Song, J. Lee, W. S. Shin, S. J. Moon, J. H. Bahng, N. A. Kotov, and S. H. Jin, “Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications,” ACS Nano5(4), 3319–3325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (1)

D. H. Wang, K. H. Park, J. H. Seo, J. Seifter, J. H. Jeon, J. K. Kim, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhanced power conversion efficiency in PCDTBT/PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with embedded silver nanoparticle clusters,” Adv. Eng. Mater.1(5), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient polymer solar cells with surface relief gratings fabricated by simple soft lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

D. H. Wang, Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(24), 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Minimizing optical losses in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.86(4), 721–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Tvingstedt, N. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhu, M. Xue, H. J. Shen, Z. Wu, S. Kim, J. J. Ho, A. Hassani-Afshar, B. Q. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Plasmonic effects for light concentration in organic photovoltaic thin films induced by hexagonal periodic metallic nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of Au and Ag nanoparticles in efficiency enhancement of poly(3-octylthiophene)/C-60 bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 203113 (2005).

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Leveque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.100(12), 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys.102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

S. R. Forrest, “The limits to organic photovoltaic cell efficiency,” MRS Bull.30(01), 28–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, S. M. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. L. Lu, and S. C. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Wannemacher, “Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films,” Opt. Commun.195(1-4), 107–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. S. Kim, D. Y. Lee, and K. Cho, “High efficiency polymer solar cells with wet deposited plasmonic gold nanodots,” Org. Electron.10(3), 416–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B74(24), 245415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dunbar, H. Hesse, D. Lembke, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Light-trapping plasmonic nanovoid arrays,” Phys. Rev. B (accepted).

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-Constants of Noble-Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. Papanikolaou, “Optical properties of metallic nanoparticle arrays on a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Comsol Multiphysics Users Manual. v.3.5.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Standard (flat) solar cell architecture. The direction of incident light is indicated. (b–d) Three classes of plasmonic solar cells designed to achieve enhanced semiconductor light absorption.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Relevant geometry parameters for the simulations, shown here for the dispersed nanoparticle plasmonic solar cell. They can be similarly applied to the other two geometries. (b) Boundary conditions. (c–e) Absorption enhancement exhibited by plasmonic solar cells relative to a planar solar cell. The values are calculated by integrating semiconductor absorption spectra within the wavelength range 350-1000 nm with AM1.5G illumination intensity. (c) Dispersed nanoparticles. (d) Nanostructured electrode. (e) In-scattering nanoparticles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption enhancement exhibited by plasmonic solar cells relative to a planar solar cell for TE-polarized light (a,c,e). Polarization-averaged absorption enhancement (b,d,f).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the active layer thickness on Aav for the dispersed nanoparticle and flat solar cells.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Redistribution of incident light (TM polarized) for the dispersed NP (circles, NP width = 40 nm, period = 190 nm), nanostructured electrode (squares, NP width = 80 nm, period = 190 nm) and in-scattering NP (triangles, NP width = 40 nm, period = 190 nm) plasmonic solar cells and the flat solar cell (black line). (a) Absorption in organic semiconductor. (b) Reflectance. (c) Absorption in the nanoparticle. (d) Absorption in the electrode. Note for the nanostructured electrode, the absorption in the planar electrode and the (attached) nanoparticle are calculated separately.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial absorption profiles under TM polarization for selected wavelengths. (a,d): Dispersed nanoparticle solar cell (nanoparticle width = 40 nm, period = 190 nm) at wavelengths 470 nm (a) and 700 nm (d). (b,e) Nanostructured electrode (nanoparticle width = 80 nm, period = 190 nm) at wavelengths 470 nm (b) and 700 nm (e). (c) Flat solar cell at wavelength 470 nm. (f) In-scattering nanoparticle solar cell (nanoparticle width = 40 nm, period = 190 nm) at wavelength 360 nm. The color scale indicates the power dissipation density relative to the maximum in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) TM semiconductor absorption for a flat solar cell (black line) and dispersed nanoparticle plasmonic solar cells with silver (circles) and perfectly conducting nanoparticles (squares), period = 190 nm, nanoparticle width = 40 nm. (b) Spatial absorption profiles with a perfectly conducting nanoparticle at 700 nm. The color scale indicates the power dissipation density relative to the maximum in 6(a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized Plasmonic Solar Cell Geometries

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

×× E n 2 k 0 2 E =0
×( 1 n 2 × H ) k 0 2 H =0
A(λ)= 1 2 ω ε 2 | E (x,y,λ) | 2 dV
A av = A TM + A TE 2

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