Abstract

The authors numerically investigate the absorption enhancement of an amorphous Si solar cell, in which a periodical one-dimensional nanowall or two-dimensional nanopillar structure of the Ag back-reflector is fabricated such that a dome-shaped grating geometry is formed after Si deposition and indium-tin-oxide coating. In this investigation, the effects of surface plasmon (SP) interaction in such a metal nanostructure are of major concern. Absorption enhancement in most of the solar spectral range of significant amorphous Si absorption (320-800 nm) is observed in a grating solar cell. In the short-wavelength range of high amorphous Si absorption, the weakly wavelength-dependent absorption enhancement is mainly caused by the broadband anti-reflection effect, which is produced through the surface nano-grating structures. In the long-wavelength range of diminishing amorphous Si absorption, the highly wavelength-sensitive absorption enhancement is mainly caused by Fabry-Perot resonance and SP interaction. The SP interaction includes the contributions of surface plasmon polariton and localized surface plasmon.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (5)

2009 (1)

2008 (14)

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced l0ight absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (8)

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, K. Celebi, and M. A. Baldo, “Surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kirkengen, J. Bergli, and Y. M. Galperin, “Direct generation of charge carriers in c-Si solar cells due to embedded nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.102(9), 093713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Li, Y. R. Chen, J. Miao, P. Zhou, Y. X. Zheng, L. Y. Chen, and Y. P. Lee, “High solar absorption of a multilayered thin film structure,” Opt. Express15(4), 1907–1912 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Silica nanorod-array films with very low refractive indices,” Nano Lett.5(7), 1385–1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Hiller, J. D. Mendelsohn, and M. F. Rubner, “Reversibly erasable nanoporous anti-reflection coatings from polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 59–63 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Lüth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection gratings fabricated upon silicon substrates,” Opt. Lett.24(20), 1422–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, H. Ohkuma, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell: white light excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 1, No. 12A), 6448–6451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell by surface plasmon excitation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.32(Part 1, No. 8), 3486–3492 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced l0ight absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldo, M. A.

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, K. Celebi, and M. A. Baldo, “Surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

F. J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bello, I.

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergli, J.

M. Kirkengen, J. Bergli, and Y. M. Galperin, “Direct generation of charge carriers in c-Si solar cells due to embedded nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.102(9), 093713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Biswas, R.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Celebi, K.

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, K. Celebi, and M. A. Baldo, “Surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, K. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. Y.

Chen, Y. R.

Chen, Z. H.

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. M.

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cong, H. T.

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubero, O.

F. J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derkacs, D.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahr, S.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galperin, Y. M.

M. Kirkengen, J. Bergli, and Y. M. Galperin, “Direct generation of charge carriers in c-Si solar cells due to embedded nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.102(9), 093713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hägglund, C.

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Haug, F. J.

F. J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, H. Ohkuma, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell: white light excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 1, No. 12A), 6448–6451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell by surface plasmon excitation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.32(Part 1, No. 8), 3486–3492 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heidel, T. D.

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, K. Celebi, and M. A. Baldo, “Surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J.

J. Hiller, J. D. Mendelsohn, and M. F. Rubner, “Reversibly erasable nanoporous anti-reflection coatings from polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 59–63 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, J. W. P.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. J.

Huang, Y. F.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inganäs, O.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y. J.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, J.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Kasemo, B.

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y. W.

Kim, D. Y.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Silica nanorod-array films with very low refractive indices,” Nano Lett.5(7), 1385–1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirkengen, M.

M. Kirkengen, J. Bergli, and Y. M. Galperin, “Direct generation of charge carriers in c-Si solar cells due to embedded nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.102(9), 093713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

Kreibig, U.

M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Lüth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kume, T.

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, H. Ohkuma, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell: white light excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 1, No. 12A), 6448–6451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell by surface plasmon excitation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.32(Part 1, No. 8), 3486–3492 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. P.

Li, H. B. T.

Li, N.

Li, X. F.

Lim, S. H.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. A.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, C.

Lüth, H.

M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Lüth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mapel, J. K.

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, K. Celebi, and M. A. Baldo, “Surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matheu, P.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, B. B.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPheeters, C.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, D.

M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Lüth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mendelsohn, J. D.

J. Hiller, J. D. Mendelsohn, and M. F. Rubner, “Reversibly erasable nanoporous anti-reflection coatings from polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 59–63 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

Mlynek, J.

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nah, Y. C.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced l0ight absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohkuma, H.

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, H. Ohkuma, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell: white light excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 1, No. 12A), 6448–6451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ostrikov, K.

Pacifici, D.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, N.-K.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersson, G.

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Rahachou, A.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rand, B. P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rostalski, J.

M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Lüth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubner, M. F.

J. Hiller, J. D. Mendelsohn, and M. F. Rubner, “Reversibly erasable nanoporous anti-reflection coatings from polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 59–63 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruby, D. S.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, M.

Schaadt, D. M.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, E.

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schropp, R. E. I.

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Silica nanorod-array films with very low refractive indices,” Nano Lett.5(7), 1385–1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, K. Celebi, and M. A. Baldo, “Surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, T.

F. J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. S.

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, U.

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, K.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced l0ight absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. B.

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F. J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. J.

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K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walters, R. J.

Wang, J. Y.

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M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Lüth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Silica nanorod-array films with very low refractive indices,” Nano Lett.5(7), 1385–1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
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Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121102 (2007).
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T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, K. Celebi, and M. A. Baldo, “Surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

M. Kirkengen, J. Bergli, and Y. M. Galperin, “Direct generation of charge carriers in c-Si solar cells due to embedded nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.102(9), 093713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell by surface plasmon excitation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.32(Part 1, No. 8), 3486–3492 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Kume, S. Hayashi, H. Ohkuma, and K. Yamamoto, “Enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency in copper phthalocyanine solar cell: white light excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 1, No. 12A), 6448–6451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Silica nanorod-array films with very low refractive indices,” Nano Lett.5(7), 1385–1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Tang, Z. H. Chen, H. S. Song, C. S. Lee, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, W. J. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4191–4195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

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[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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Opt. Express (7)

X. F. Li, Y. R. Chen, J. Miao, P. Zhou, Y. X. Zheng, L. Y. Chen, and Y. P. Lee, “High solar absorption of a multilayered thin film structure,” Opt. Express15(4), 1907–1912 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, N. Li, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Enhancing InGaN-based solar cell efficiency through localized surface plasmon interaction by embedding Ag nanoparticles in the absorbing layer,” Opt. Express18(3), 2682–2694 (2010).
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F. J. Tsai, J. Y. Wang, J. J. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Absorption enhancement of an amorphous Si solar cell through surface plasmon-induced scattering with metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A207–A220 (2010).
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V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Lüth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1991).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional view of the solar cell structure (one period) under study. This figure shows the one-period structure of a 1-D or a 2-D grating solar cell. The solar cells with 1-D and 2-D gratings are schematically shown in parts (b) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photon absorption rates of the solar cells with 1-D gratings as functions of wavelength with h = 50, 70, 110, and 150 nm when TM-polarized sunlight is incident angle with θ = 0. The result of the reference solar cell of flat surface is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity as a function of wavelength from the 1-D grating solar cell with h = 110 nm, θ = 0, and TM-polarized incident sunlight. The similar result of the reference device of flat surface is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electrical field amplitude distributions (in log scale) at the wavelengths of 500 (a), 600 (b), 695 (c), and 740 (d) nm in the solar cell with a 1-D grating of h = 110 nm when TM-polarized sunlight is normally incident (θ = 0).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photon absorption rates of the solar cells with 1-D gratings as functions of wavelength with h = 50, 70, 110, and 150 nm when TE-polarized sunlight is incident with θ = 0. The result of the reference solar cell of flat surface is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electrical field amplitude distributions (in log scale) at the wavelengths of 500 (a), 600 (b), 695 (c), and 745 (d) nm in the solar cell with a 1-D grating of h = 110 nm when TE-polarized sunlight is normally incident (θ = 0).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photon absorption rates of the solar cells with 2-D gratings as functions of wavelength with h = 50, 70, 110, and 150 nm when sunlight is incident with θ = 0.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electrical field amplitude distributions (in log scale) in the y-z and x-z planes at the wavelengths of 500 ((a) and (b)), 625 ((c) and (d)), 685 ((e) and (f)), and 740 ((g) and (h)) nm in the solar cell with a 2-D grating of h = 110 nm when sunlight is normally incident (θ = 0).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average integrated photon absorption rates of 1-D (a) and 2-D (b) grating solar cells as functions of Ag grating height (h) for different sunlight incident angles at θ = 0, 30, and 60 degrees.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dispersion relation (the continuous curve on the right) of the SPP on the flat interface between amorphous Si and Ag and a duplicate horizontally left-shifted by 2π/p = 0.0224 nm−1. β denotes the complex wave vector along the interface. The two dashed curves stand for the light lines of air and amorphous Si (a-Si).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photon absorption rates as functions of wavelength in the region of the two successive metal nanowalls for the cases of r = 560, 1120, and 3360 nm when h is 50 nm and TM-polarized sunlight is normally incident. The modified solar cell structure is depicted in the insert.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Electrical field amplitude distributions (in log scale) at the wavelengths of 670 nm ((a)-(c)), 700 nm ((d)-(f)), and 750 nm ((g)-(i)) in the cases of r = 560 nm ((a), (d), and (g)), 1120 nm ((b), (e), and (h)), and 3360 nm ((c), (f), and (i)) in the solar cell section of the two metal nanowalls.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Electrical field amplitude distributions along a horizontal line 50 nm above the bottom of metal grating (see the horizontal dashed lines in Figs. 12(d)-12(f)) for the cases of three r values.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Integrated photon absorption rates and the enhancement percentages (within the parentheses) with respect to the reference device of flat surface in various cases of 1-D grating solar cell. The numbers of photon absorption rates must be multiplied by 107 in the unit of s−1.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Integrated photon absorption rates and the enhancement percentages (within the parentheses) with respect to the reference device of flat surface in various cases of 2-D grating solar cell. The numbers of photon absorption rates must be multiplied by 107 in the unit of s−1.

Equations (2)

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G( λ )= V N p (λ) 1 2 ω ε 0 ε d '' | E | 2 1 2 | Re( E i × H i * ) | dv.
G T = AM1.5G V N p (λ) 1 2 ω ε 0 ε d '' | E | 2 1 2 | Re( E i × H i * ) | dvdλ .

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