Abstract

This study introduces a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF) on top of a phosphor-converted LED (pc-LED) packing associated with each corresponding tunable orthosilicate ((Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu) phosphor in order to fabricate tunable green pc-LEDs. These LPDF-capped green pc-LEDs provide luminous efficacies between 143–173 lm/W at 60 mA in a wavelength range between 515 and 560 nm. These tunable green pc-LEDs can replace green semiconductor-type III-V LEDs, which present challenges with respect to generating high luminous efficacy. We also introduce the highly-efficient tunable green pc-LEDs into tri-color white LED systems that combine an InGaN blue LED and green/red full down-converted pc-LEDs. The effect of peak wavelength in the tunable green pc-LEDs on the optical properties of a tri-color package white LED is analyzed to determine the proper wavelength of green color for tri-color white LEDs. The tri-color white LED provides excellent luminous efficacy (81.5–109 lm/W) and a good color rendering index (64–87) at 6500 K of correlated color temperature (CCT) with the peak wavelength of green pc-LEDs. The luminous efficacy of the LPDF-capped green monochromatic pc-LED and tri-color package with tunable green pc-LEDs can be increased by improving the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs and the conversion efficiency of green pc-LEDs.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. H. Oh, J. R. Oh, H. K. Park, Y.-G. Sung, and Y. R. Do, “New paradigm of multi-chip white LEDs: combination of an InGaN blue LED and full down-converted phosphor-converted LEDs,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A270–A279 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, H. K. Park, J. H. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Full down-conversion of amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with powder phosphors and a long-wave pass filter,” Opt. Express18(11), 11063–11072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Cheng, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Color breakup suppression in field-sequential five-primary-color LCDs,” J. Display Technol.6(6), 229–234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

2009 (3)

W. Schnick, “Shine a light with nitrides,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), A113–A114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Kurai, H. Sakura, Y. Uchida, and T. Taguchi, “Fabrication and illuminance properties of phosphor-conversion green light-emitting diode with a luminous efficacy over 100 lm/W,” J. Light Visual Environ.31(3), 28–30 (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M=Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun.133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ballen, T.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Ballen, T. A.

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, A. S.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Baur, J.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergbauer, W.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biebersdorc, A.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Chen, C.-H.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.-C.

Cho, S.-H.

Choi, J. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M=Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun.133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

Crawford, M. H.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Engl, K.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Groetsch, S.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Haase, M. A.

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Hahn, B.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hao, B.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Itou, M.

H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, P. E.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M=Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun.133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kecman, F.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Kijima, N.

H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M=Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun.133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

Kim, Y.-K.

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurai, S.

S. Kurai, H. Sakura, Y. Uchida, and T. Taguchi, “Fabrication and illuminance properties of phosphor-conversion green light-emitting diode with a luminous efficacy over 100 lm/W,” J. Light Visual Environ.31(3), 28–30 (2007).

Laubsch, A.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leatherdale, C. A.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Masui, H.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. J.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muthu, S.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. H.

Oh, J. R.

Ohno, Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

Park, H. L.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M=Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun.133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parmentier, A. B.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pashley, M. D.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peter, M.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poelman, D.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sabathil, M.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakura, H.

S. Kurai, H. Sakura, Y. Uchida, and T. Taguchi, “Fabrication and illuminance properties of phosphor-conversion green light-emitting diode with a luminous efficacy over 100 lm/W,” J. Light Visual Environ.31(3), 28–30 (2007).

Schmidt, P.

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P. J.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schnick, W.

W. Schnick, “Shine a light with nitrides,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), A113–A114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuurmans, F. J. P.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seki, K.

H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smet, P. F.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T. L.

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Steigelmann, O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sua, X.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Sun, X.

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y.-G.

Taguchi, T.

S. Kurai, H. Sakura, Y. Uchida, and T. Taguchi, “Fabrication and illuminance properties of phosphor-conversion green light-emitting diode with a luminous efficacy over 100 lm/W,” J. Light Visual Environ.31(3), 28–30 (2007).

Thieleb, J.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Trottier, T. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuecks, A.

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, Y.

S. Kurai, H. Sakura, Y. Uchida, and T. Taguchi, “Fabrication and illuminance properties of phosphor-conversion green light-emitting diode with a luminous efficacy over 100 lm/W,” J. Light Visual Environ.31(3), 28–30 (2007).

Wada, H.

H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiechert, D.

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, R.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Wu, S.-T.

Xie, J.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Yang, Z. H.

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Zhou, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Haase, J. Xie, T. A. Ballen, J. Zhang, B. Hao, Z. H. Yang, T. J. Miller, X. Sun, T. L. Smith, and C. A. Leatherdale, “II-VI semiconductor color converters for efficient green, yellow, and red light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

H. Watanabe, H. Wada, K. Seki, M. Itou, and N. Kijima, “Synthetic method and luminescence properties of SrxCa1-xAlSiN3:Eu2+ mixed nitride phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(3), F31–F36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Visual Environ. (1)

S. Kurai, H. Sakura, Y. Uchida, and T. Taguchi, “Fabrication and illuminance properties of phosphor-conversion green light-emitting diode with a luminous efficacy over 100 lm/W,” J. Light Visual Environ.31(3), 28–30 (2007).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. (1)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. (1)

W. Schnick, “Shine a light with nitrides,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett.3(7–8), A113–A114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Schmidt, A. Tuecks, H. Bechtel, D. Wiechert, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, and W. Schnick “Layered oxonitrido silicate (SiON) phosphors for high power LEDs,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580L (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Miller, M. A. Haase, X. Sua, B. Hao, J. Zhang, T. L. Smith, T. Ballen, J. Xie, A. S. Barnes, F. Kecman, J. Yang, J. Thieleb, C. A. Leatherdale, R. Wirth, A. Biebersdorc, K. Engl, and S. Groetsch, “High efficiency green LEDs using II-VI color converters,” Proc. SPIE7617, 76171A (2010).

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M=Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun.133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of four different types of full down-converted green LEDs using color conversion materials. Different green pc-LEDs are fabricated using: (a) blue or n-UV/violet LED and a high concentration of phosphors, (b) blue LED and densely sintered translucent ceramic phosphors, (c) blue LED and a CdMgZnSe multiple quantum well structures, (d) blue LED and phosphors capped with a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The relative luminous efficacies and (b) color purity of green pc-LEDs with and without a LPDF as a function of the phosphor concentration using G550 green phosphor in paste. (c) The luminous efficacy of selected green pc-LEDs with and without a LPDF with similar 1931 CIE color coordinates to the corresponding phosphor as a function of the peak wavelength of a tunable green pc-LED. All measurements were performed under equal-current conditions (60 mA).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photoluminescence spectra and (b) Color coordinates of a series of orthosilicate green phosphors excited by blue light. (c) Electroluminescence spectra and (d) color coordinates of six different LPDF-capped green pc-LEDs associated with corresponding green phosphors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Luminous efficacy, (b) Luminous flux, and (c) Color coordinates of conventional InGaN green LED and six tunable LPDF-capped green pc-LEDs as functions of applied current (arrow indicates the increase of current). (d) Luminous efficacy, (e) Luminous flux, and (f) Color coordinates of conventional InGaN green LED and six tunable LPDF-capped green pc-LEDs as functions of ambient temperature (arrow indicates the increase of temperature).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The measured luminous efficacy at 60 mA and the luminous efficiency of the radiation (LER) of six tunable green pc-LEDs. (b) EQE values for a blue (B0.49), a green III-V LED and a family of tunable green pc-LEDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The color purity and emission spectra of each green pc-LED with a LPDF as a function of the viewing angle: (a) G515, (b) G521, (c) G530, (d) G540, (e) G550, (f) G560.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Normalized EL emission spectra and (b) Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of a blue LED, (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu red pc-LED, and six tunable (Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu) green pc-LEDs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The overlapped integrated emission spectra of each LED in a RB,MGB,MB three-package white-light along with the peak wavelength of the tunable green pc-LEDs at (a) 6500 and (b) 3500 K. The fractional applied current of the primary LEDs in each RB,MGB,MB three-package white light along with the peak wavelength of the tunable green pc-LEDs at (c) 6500 and (d) 3500 K..

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Luminous efficacy and (b) color rendering index of RB,MGB,MB three-package white-light at 6500 and 3500 K as a function of the peak wavelength of a tunable green pc-LED.

Equations (1)

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η epc = η lmm /LER= η e × η con = η e ×( η p × η pkg )

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