Abstract

We present a high-speed holographic microscopic technique for quantitative measurement of polarization light-field, referred to as polarization holographic microscopy (PHM). Employing the principle of common-path interferometry, PHM quantitatively measures the spatially resolved Jones matrix components of anisotropic samples with only two consecutive measurements of spatially modulated holograms. We demonstrate the features of PHM with imaging the dynamics of liquid crystal droplets at a video-rate.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Stokes holography,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 966–968 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

T. Lee, R. P. Trivedi, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Multimodal nonlinear optical polarizing microscopy of long-range molecular order in liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3447–3449 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Trivedi, T. Lee, K. A. Bertness, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three dimensional optical manipulation and structural imaging of soft materials by use of laser tweezers and multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27658–27669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Barabino, M. O. Platt, and D. K. Kaul, “Sickle cell biomechanics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12(1), 345–367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. D. Shoulders and R. T. Raines, “Collagen structure and stability,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 78(1), 929–958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-C. Chen and S.-H. Lim, “Three-dimensional imaging of director field orientations in liquid crystals by polarized four-wave mixing microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gasecka, T. J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, “Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry,” Biophys. J. 97(10), 2854–2862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

T. Colomb, F. Dürr, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and C. Depeursinge, “Polarization microscopy by use of digital holography: application to optical-fiber birefringence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4461–4469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Massoumian, R. Juškaitis, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Quantitative polarized light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 209(1), 13–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, “Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3935–3942 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. R. Kuhn, Z. Wu, and M. Poenie, “Modulated polarization microscopy: a promising new approach to visualizing cytoskeletal dynamics in living cells,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 972–985 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 336(1-2), 88–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Katoh, K. Hammar, P. J. S. Smith, and R. Oldenbourg, “Birefringence imaging directly reveals architectural dynamics of filamentous actin in living growth cones,” Mol. Biol. Cell 10(1), 197–210 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Oldenbourg, “A new view on polarization microscopy,” Nature 381(6585), 811–812 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1942

Aidoo, M.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araki, T.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atweh, G. F.

P. S. Frenette and G. F. Atweh, “Sickle cell disease: old discoveries, new concepts, and future promise,” J. Clin. Invest. 117(4), 850–858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auth, T.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Awatsuji, Y.

Badizadegan, K.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barabino, G. A.

G. A. Barabino, M. O. Platt, and D. K. Kaul, “Sickle cell biomechanics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12(1), 345–367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertness, K. A.

Best, C. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolton, J.

S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Brasselet, S.

A. Gasecka, T. J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, “Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry,” Biophys. J. 97(10), 2854–2862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.-C.

B.-C. Chen and S.-H. Lim, “Three-dimensional imaging of director field orientations in liquid crystals by polarized four-wave mixing microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, B. R.

A. Gasecka, T. J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, “Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry,” Biophys. J. 97(10), 2854–2862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Cuche, E.

Curl, C. L.

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debnath, S. K.

Delbridge, L. M.

Depeursinge, C.

Diez-Silva, M.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragomir, N. M.

Dürr, F.

Favard, C.

A. Gasecka, T. J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, “Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry,” Biophys. J. 97(10), 2854–2862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frenette, P. S.

P. S. Frenette and G. F. Atweh, “Sickle cell disease: old discoveries, new concepts, and future promise,” J. Clin. Invest. 117(4), 850–858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasecka, A.

A. Gasecka, T. J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, “Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry,” Biophys. J. 97(10), 2854–2862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Goh, X. M.

Gov, N. S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haffegee, J.

S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hammar, K.

K. Katoh, K. Hammar, P. J. S. Smith, and R. Oldenbourg, “Birefringence imaging directly reveals architectural dynamics of filamentous actin in living growth cones,” Mol. Biol. Cell 10(1), 197–210 (1999).
[PubMed]

Han, T. J.

A. Gasecka, T. J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, “Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry,” Biophys. J. 97(10), 2854–2862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, M.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henle, M. L.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heppenstall-Butler, M.

T. Tixier, M. Heppenstall-Butler, and E. M. Terentjev, “Spontaneous size selection in cholesteric and nematic emulsions,” Langmuir 22(5), 2365–2370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, D. A.

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, “Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3935–3942 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, J. M.

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M. W.

S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Itou, H.

Javidi, B.

Jones, R. C.

Juškaitis, R.

F. Massoumian, R. Juškaitis, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Quantitative polarized light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 209(1), 13–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kachynski, A. V.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kakue, T.

Kariuki, S.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katoh, K.

K. Katoh, K. Hammar, P. J. S. Smith, and R. Oldenbourg, “Birefringence imaging directly reveals architectural dynamics of filamentous actin in living growth cones,” Mol. Biol. Cell 10(1), 197–210 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kaul, D. K.

G. A. Barabino, M. O. Platt, and D. K. Kaul, “Sickle cell biomechanics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12(1), 345–367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knight, D.

S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kolczak, M. S.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, T.

Kuhn, J. R.

J. R. Kuhn, Z. Wu, and M. Poenie, “Modulated polarization microscopy: a promising new approach to visualizing cytoskeletal dynamics in living cells,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 972–985 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriabova, T.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lal, A. A.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

B. G. Saar, H.-S. Park, X. S. Xie, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Three-dimensional imaging of chemical bond orientation in liquid crystals by coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13585–13596 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 336(1-2), 88–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

Levine, A. J.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S.-H.

B.-C. Chen and S.-H. Lim, “Three-dimensional imaging of director field orientations in liquid crystals by polarized four-wave mixing microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Luther, B. J.

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, “Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3935–3942 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

Massoumian, F.

F. Massoumian, R. Juškaitis, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Quantitative polarized light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 209(1), 13–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matoba, O.

McElroy, P. D.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millet, L. J.

Miyamoto, Y.

Müller, M.

Murata, S.

Nahlen, B. L.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, D. N.

Neil, M. A.

F. Massoumian, R. Juškaitis, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Quantitative polarized light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 209(1), 13–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newton, R.

S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Nitanai, E.

Nomura, T.

Numata, T.

Oh-E, M.

Oldenbourg, R.

K. Katoh, K. Hammar, P. J. S. Smith, and R. Oldenbourg, “Birefringence imaging directly reveals architectural dynamics of filamentous actin in living growth cones,” Mol. Biol. Cell 10(1), 197–210 (1999).
[PubMed]

R. Oldenbourg, “A new view on polarization microscopy,” Nature 381(6585), 811–812 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Park, Y.

S. K. Debnath and Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4677–4679 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. K.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Platt, M. O.

G. A. Barabino, M. O. Platt, and D. K. Kaul, “Sickle cell biomechanics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12(1), 345–367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. R. Kuhn, Z. Wu, and M. Poenie, “Modulated polarization microscopy: a promising new approach to visualizing cytoskeletal dynamics in living cells,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 972–985 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
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Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1270–1272 (2008).
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G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
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G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulin, P.

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151905 (2007).
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M. D. Shoulders and R. T. Raines, “Collagen structure and stability,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 78(1), 929–958 (2009).
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S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Safran, S. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
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Shimozato, Y.

Shin, I. H.

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
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Shin, S. M.

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 336(1-2), 88–96 (2001).
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M. D. Shoulders and R. T. Raines, “Collagen structure and stability,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 78(1), 929–958 (2009).
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Smalyukh, I. I.

T. Lee, R. P. Trivedi, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Multimodal nonlinear optical polarizing microscopy of long-range molecular order in liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3447–3449 (2010).
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R. P. Trivedi, T. Lee, K. A. Bertness, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Three dimensional optical manipulation and structural imaging of soft materials by use of laser tweezers and multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27658–27669 (2010).
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A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 336(1-2), 88–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. J. S.

K. Katoh, K. Hammar, P. J. S. Smith, and R. Oldenbourg, “Birefringence imaging directly reveals architectural dynamics of filamentous actin in living growth cones,” Mol. Biol. Cell 10(1), 197–210 (1999).
[PubMed]

Suresh, S.

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
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Takeda, M.

ter Kuile, F. O.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terentjev, E. M.

T. Tixier, M. Heppenstall-Butler, and E. M. Terentjev, “Spontaneous size selection in cholesteric and nematic emulsions,” Langmuir 22(5), 2365–2370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terlouw, D. J.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Tixier, M. Heppenstall-Butler, and E. M. Terentjev, “Spontaneous size selection in cholesteric and nematic emulsions,” Langmuir 22(5), 2365–2370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trivedi, R. P.

Udhayakumar, V.

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ura, S.

Wang, Z.

Weitz, D. A.

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

F. Massoumian, R. Juškaitis, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Quantitative polarized light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 209(1), 13–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

J. R. Kuhn, Z. Wu, and M. Poenie, “Modulated polarization microscopy: a promising new approach to visualizing cytoskeletal dynamics in living cells,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 972–985 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

Yokoyama, H.

Yoshiki, K.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biochem.

M. D. Shoulders and R. T. Raines, “Collagen structure and stability,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 78(1), 929–958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

G. A. Barabino, M. O. Platt, and D. K. Kaul, “Sickle cell biomechanics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12(1), 345–367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B.-C. Chen and S.-H. Lim, “Three-dimensional imaging of director field orientations in liquid crystals by polarized four-wave mixing microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151905 (2007).
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Biophys. J.

A. Gasecka, T. J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, “Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry,” Biophys. J. 97(10), 2854–2862 (2009).
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J. R. Kuhn, Z. Wu, and M. Poenie, “Modulated polarization microscopy: a promising new approach to visualizing cytoskeletal dynamics in living cells,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 972–985 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 336(1-2), 88–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, “Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3935–3942 (2003).
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P. S. Frenette and G. F. Atweh, “Sickle cell disease: old discoveries, new concepts, and future promise,” J. Clin. Invest. 117(4), 850–858 (2007).
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J. Microsc.

F. Massoumian, R. Juškaitis, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Quantitative polarized light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 209(1), 13–22 (2003).
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S. Ross, R. Newton, Y. M. Zhou, J. Haffegee, M. W. Ho, J. Bolton, and D. Knight, “Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material,” J. Microsc. 187(1), 62–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lancet

M. Aidoo, D. J. Terlouw, M. S. Kolczak, P. D. McElroy, F. O. ter Kuile, S. Kariuki, B. L. Nahlen, A. A. Lal, and V. Udhayakumar, “Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality,” Lancet 359(9314), 1311–1312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir

T. Tixier, M. Heppenstall-Butler, and E. M. Terentjev, “Spontaneous size selection in cholesteric and nematic emulsions,” Langmuir 22(5), 2365–2370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Biol. Cell

K. Katoh, K. Hammar, P. J. S. Smith, and R. Oldenbourg, “Birefringence imaging directly reveals architectural dynamics of filamentous actin in living growth cones,” Mol. Biol. Cell 10(1), 197–210 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nature

R. Oldenbourg, “A new view on polarization microscopy,” Nature 381(6585), 811–812 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Biotechnol.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

T. Lee, B. Senyuk, R. P. Trivedi, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical microscopy of soft matter systems,” arXiv:1108.3287 (2011).

P. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2011).

P. G. De Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (597 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the experimental configuration for PHM. PBS, polarized beam splitter; OC, optical chopper; HWP, half waveplate; P, polarizer; SF, spatial filter (extended in the inset as a front and a side views). The arrows indicate to the polarization direction of the beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Successively measured interferograms of a single liquid crystal droplet. Elapsed time and polarization direction of the incident beam are noted. Scale bar, 5 µm. Illustrations of polarization states right after (b) the He-Ne laser and (c) PBS2 in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results for a nematic LC droplet. (a,b) Interferograms of a nematic LC droplet measured with linearly polarized beams oscillating in + 45° and −45°, respectively. (c,d) Logarithmic amplitudes of Fourier spectra from the measured interferograms (a,b) via 2D Fourier transformation. The indicated areas of Y11, Y21 and Y12, Y21 correspond to Fourier spectra that pass the horizontally and vertically aligned linear polarizers, respectively. (e) Amplitude and phase maps of the sample associated with Y11, Y12, Y21, and Y22, respectively. The arrows in (a,b) represent the polarization direction of the incident beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Media 1) Amplitude (a) and phase (b) maps of Jones matrix components, J11, J12, J21, J22, measured from a nematic LC droplet.

Equations (4)

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J _ =[ J 11 J 12 J 21 J 22 ],
[ E x ( t ) E y ( t ) ]= n=0 [ δ( t2nTT )[ 1 0 ]+δ( t2nT )[ 0 1 ] ]
E +45 = c 1 ( 1 1 ),  E 45 = c 2 ( 1 1 ),
[ Y 11 Y 12 Y 21 Y 22 ]=[ c 1 c 1 0 0 c 2 c 2 0 0 0 0 c 1 c 1 0 0 c 2 c 2 ][ J 11 J 12 J 21 J 22 ].

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