Abstract

Using Fresnel zone plates made with our robust nanofabrication processes, we have successfully achieved 10 nm spatial resolution with soft x-ray microscopy. The result, obtained with both a conventional full-field and scanning soft x-ray microscope, marks a significant step forward in extending the microscopy to truly nanoscale studies.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. E. V. Shevchenko, D. V. Talapin, N. A. Kotov, S. O’Brien, and C. B. Murray, “Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices,” Nature 439(7072), 55–59 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Ade and A. P. Hitchcock, “NEXAFS microscopy and resonant scattering: Composition and orientation probed in real and reciprocal space,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 643–675 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
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  11. T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. Anderson, “Hydrogen silsesquioxane double patterning process for 12 nm resolution x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2606–2611 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. E. Barnett, “Reciprocity theorem and equivalence of conventional and scanning transmission microscopes,” Optik (Stuttg.) 38, 585–588 (1973).
  22. S. Rehbein and G. Schneider, “Volume zone plate development at BESSY,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 103–106.
  23. K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, “13 nm high-efficiency nickel-germanium soft x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011012 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, “13 nm high-efficiency nickel-germanium soft x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, “Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy,” Mater. Today 13(9), 14–22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Butenko, A. A. Leonov, A. N. Bogdanov, U. Rößler, ouml, szlig, and U. K. ler, “Theory of vortex states in magnetic nanodisks with induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(13), 134410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. Anderson, “Hydrogen silsesquioxane double patterning process for 12 nm resolution x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2606–2611 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

H. Ade and A. P. Hitchcock, “NEXAFS microscopy and resonant scattering: Composition and orientation probed in real and reciprocal space,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 643–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. V. Shevchenko, D. V. Talapin, N. A. Kotov, S. O’Brien, and C. B. Murray, “Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices,” Nature 439(7072), 55–59 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. M. Heck, D. T. Attwood, W. Meyer-Ilse, and E. H. Anderson, “Resolution determination in X-ray microscopy: an analysis of the effects of partial coherence and illumination spectrum,” J. X-Ray Sci. Tech. (Paris) 8, 95–104 (1998).

1997 (1)

G. Schneider, “Zone plates with high efficiency in high orders of diffraction described by dynamical theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2242–2244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. E. Barnett, “Reciprocity theorem and equivalence of conventional and scanning transmission microscopes,” Optik (Stuttg.) 38, 585–588 (1973).

Acremann, Y.

T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ade, H.

H. Ade and A. P. Hitchcock, “NEXAFS microscopy and resonant scattering: Composition and orientation probed in real and reciprocal space,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 643–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akre, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. Anderson, “Hydrogen silsesquioxane double patterning process for 12 nm resolution x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2606–2611 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heck, D. T. Attwood, W. Meyer-Ilse, and E. H. Anderson, “Resolution determination in X-ray microscopy: an analysis of the effects of partial coherence and illumination spectrum,” J. X-Ray Sci. Tech. (Paris) 8, 95–104 (1998).

Andrews, S.

T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Heck, D. T. Attwood, W. Meyer-Ilse, and E. H. Anderson, “Resolution determination in X-ray microscopy: an analysis of the effects of partial coherence and illumination spectrum,” J. X-Ray Sci. Tech. (Paris) 8, 95–104 (1998).

Barnett, M. E.

M. E. Barnett, “Reciprocity theorem and equivalence of conventional and scanning transmission microscopes,” Optik (Stuttg.) 38, 585–588 (1973).

Bertilson, M.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, “13 nm high-efficiency nickel-germanium soft x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, A. N.

A. B. Butenko, A. A. Leonov, A. N. Bogdanov, U. Rößler, ouml, szlig, and U. K. ler, “Theory of vortex states in magnetic nanodisks with induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(13), 134410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bostedt, C.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozek, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brachmann, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. G. E.

T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Butenko, A. B.

A. B. Butenko, A. A. Leonov, A. N. Bogdanov, U. Rößler, ouml, szlig, and U. K. ler, “Theory of vortex states in magnetic nanodisks with induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(13), 134410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. Anderson, “Hydrogen silsesquioxane double patterning process for 12 nm resolution x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2606–2611 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, W. L.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chembrolu, V.

T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coffee, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Creemer, J. F.

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J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, “13 nm high-efficiency nickel-germanium soft x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011012 (2011).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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E. V. Shevchenko, D. V. Talapin, N. A. Kotov, S. O’Brien, and C. B. Murray, “Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices,” Nature 439(7072), 55–59 (2006).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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E. V. Shevchenko, D. V. Talapin, N. A. Kotov, S. O’Brien, and C. B. Murray, “Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices,” Nature 439(7072), 55–59 (2006).
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A. B. Butenko, A. A. Leonov, A. N. Bogdanov, U. Rößler, ouml, szlig, and U. K. ler, “Theory of vortex states in magnetic nanodisks with induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(13), 134410 (2009).
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Pile, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
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K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
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K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
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K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
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Rößler, U.

A. B. Butenko, A. A. Leonov, A. N. Bogdanov, U. Rößler, ouml, szlig, and U. K. ler, “Theory of vortex states in magnetic nanodisks with induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(13), 134410 (2009).
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S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
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Rzepiela, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Schneider, G.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Senoner, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
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Shevchenko, E. V.

E. V. Shevchenko, D. V. Talapin, N. A. Kotov, S. O’Brien, and C. B. Murray, “Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices,” Nature 439(7072), 55–59 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
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T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
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Swart, I.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

szlig,

A. B. Butenko, A. A. Leonov, A. N. Bogdanov, U. Rößler, ouml, szlig, and U. K. ler, “Theory of vortex states in magnetic nanodisks with induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(13), 134410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takman, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

E. V. Shevchenko, D. V. Talapin, N. A. Kotov, S. O’Brien, and C. B. Murray, “Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices,” Nature 439(7072), 55–59 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tompkins, H.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tyliszczak, T.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veklerov, E.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Hofsten, O.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, “13 nm high-efficiency nickel-germanium soft x-ray zone plates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, T.

T. Tyliszczak, T. Warwick, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Fakra, D. K. Shuh, T. H. Yoon, J. G. E. Brown, S. Andrews, V. Chembrolu, J. Strachan, and Y. Acremann, “Soft x-ray scanning transmission microscope working in an extended energy range at the advanced light source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 1356–1359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weckhuysen, B. M.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Werner, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A schematic of the conventional full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope, XM-1, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The CZP, pinhole, and plane mirror serve as a monochromator, providing a modest bandwidth. (b) An illustration of the imaging portion of a scanning transmission soft x-ray microscope. A variety of detectors can be used for different imaging modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The simulated image contrasts of different periods of binary, equal line and space patterns, produced by the XM-1 microscope under various degrees of imaging coherence, σ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) An x-ray image and (b) a transmission electron image of our standard Mo/Si multilayer test object. The flattened x-ray image was obtained with a 6 sec exposure at 1.75 nm wavelength using the XM-1 microscope. (c) The absolute image contrasts measured at the three periods in (a), as well as those at larger periods, plotted as dots against the spatial frequency of the patterns. The solid line indicates the predicted contrasts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) An x-ray image of the Mo/Si multilayer test object taken by the MES-STXM microscope at 1.77 nm wavelength and with a 2.5 nm step size. The 9 nm pattern image was acquired with 80 ms dwell time (8.5 min exposure), while the 10 nm and 11 nm images were taken with 20 ms dwell time (2.1 min exposure). (b) The absolute image contrasts measured from the images in (a), as well as the predicted contrasts.

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