Abstract

We report on the fabrication of ridge waveguide in Nd:GGG crystal by using swift C5+ ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation. At room temperature continuous wave laser oscillation at wavelength of ~1063 nm has been realized through the optical pump at 808 nm with a slope efficiency of 41.8% and the pump threshold is 71.6 mW.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
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  5. J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
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  6. M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
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  12. C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
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  24. R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. F. Ziegler, computer code, SRIM http://www.srim.org .
  29. J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kumar, S. M. Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Agulló-López, F.

J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-Rueda, F.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Babu, S. M.

P. Kumar, S. M. Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baburin, N. V.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

Bettiol, A. A.

Caballero, O.

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

Chandler, P. J.

Chen, F.

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, Y. C. Jia, L. L. Pang, Z. G. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and F. Chen, “Efficient laser emissions at 1.06 μm of swift heavy ion irradiated Nd:YCOB waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4521–4523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Yao, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, S. K. Vanga, and A. A. Bettiol, “Proton beam writing of Nd:GGG crystals as new waveguide laser sources,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4173–4175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Continuous wave laser generation in proton implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3578–3581 (2010).

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chikov, V. A.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crespillo, M. L.

J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danileiko, Y. K.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Degl’lnnocenti, R.

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C. M.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N. N.

Eason, R. W.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

Galagan, B. I.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ganesamoorthy, S.

P. Kumar, S. M. Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García, G.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Blanco, S.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Cabañes, A.

García-Navarro, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guan, J.

Guarina, A.

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

Hodgson, E.

J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Il’ichev, N. N.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y. C.

Jia, Z. T.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanjilal, D.

P. Kumar, S. M. Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karnal, A. K.

P. Kumar, S. M. Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

P. Kumar, S. M. Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Large, A. C.

Lauzurica, S.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manzano, J.

J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masalov, A. V.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

Merchant, C.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molchanov, V. Y.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Molpeceres, C.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moroño, A.

J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narusawa, T.

F. Qiu and T. Narusawa, “Application of swift and heavy ion implantation to the formation of chalcogenide glass optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 527–530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ocaña, J. L.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L. L.

Petermann, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L. J.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, F.

F. Qiu and T. Narusawa, “Application of swift and heavy ion implantation to the formation of chalcogenide glass optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 527–530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reidt, S.

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y. Y.

Rezzonico, D.

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 52–54 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siebenmorgen, J.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Tang, D. Y.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. T.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torchia, G. A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

Tropper, A. C.

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanga, S. K.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

Wilkinson, J. S.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G. Q.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yao, Y. C.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, L.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Quantum Electron. (1)

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Y. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il’ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Y. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 31(4), 303–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Degl’lnnocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarina, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Gunter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumar, S. M. Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(2), 100–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. (1)

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

J. Manzano, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, M. L. Crespillo, A. Moroño, and E. Hodgson, “Optical waveguides obtained by swift-ion irradiation on silica (a-SiO2),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268(19), 3147–3150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Qiu and T. Narusawa, “Application of swift and heavy ion implantation to the formation of chalcogenide glass optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 527–530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. F. Ziegler, computer code, SRIM http://www.srim.org .

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK 1994).

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. DOI 10.1002/lpor.201100037.
[CrossRef]

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The microscope image of the end face of the Nd:GGG (a) planar waveguide and (c) ridge waveguide (the dashed lines indicate the waveguide regions); and the near-field modal profiles of the (b) planar and (d) ridge waveguides at the wavelength of 632.8 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The electronic stopping power (blue dashed line), nuclear stopping power (green solid line) curves as well as the refractive profile of the waveguide (red dotted line) as a function of the depth from the sample surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The room temperature luminescence emission spectrum correlated to Nd3+ ions at 4F3/24I9/2 transition of the Nd:GGG crystal, (b) the emitted intensity, (c) spectral shift and (d) emission width (at FWHM) of the 932.7 nm emission line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser emission spectra from the Nd:GGG (a) planar waveguide and (b) ridge waveguide. The insets depict the laser modal profiles at lasing wavelength of ~1063 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output laser power at 1063 nm as a function of absorbed pump power at 808 nm obtained from (a) the Nd:GGG planar waveguide and (b) the Nd:GGG ridge waveguide.

Equations (1)

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Δn= sin 2 Θ m 2n

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