Abstract

We theoretically investigate the isolated attosecond pulse generation from pre-excited medium with a chirped and chirped-free two-color field. It is found that the large initial population of the excited state can lead to the high density of the free electrons in the medium and the large distortion of the driving laser field after propagation, though it benefits large enhancement of harmonic intensity in single atom response. These effects can weaken the phase-match of the macroscopic supercontinuum. On the contrary, the small initial population of 4% can generate well phase-match intense supercontinuum. We also investigate an isolated attosecond pulse generation by using a filter centered on axis to select the harmonics in the far field. Our results reveal that the radius of the spatial filter should be chosen to be small enough to reduce the duration of the isolated attosecond pulse due to the curvature effect of spatiotemporal profiles of the generated attosecond pulses in the far field.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Gilbertson, S. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Gaarde, M. Murakami, and R. Kienberger, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Jin, A-T Le, C. Trallero-Herrero, and C. Lin, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the far field by spatial filtering with an intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043411 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Du and B. Hu, “Propagation effects of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 84,023817 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. Abel, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31, 975–977 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Orlando, P. Corso, E. Fiordilino, and F. Persico, “A three-colour scheme to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 43, 025602 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).
  29. J. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. Milos̆ević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 308–317 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. Hong, Q. Zhang, X. Zhu, and P. Lu, “Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation in pre-excited medium,” Opt. Express 19, 4728–4739 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Feit, J. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Vafaee, H. Sabzyan, Z. Vafaee, and A. Katanforoush, “Detailed instantaneous ionization rate of H2+ in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043416 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50 – 30,000eV, Z = 1 – 92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  37. P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Gaarde, J. Tate, and K. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B. 41, 132001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  39. Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  40. Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Carrera and S. Chu, “Extension of high-order harmonic generation cutoff via coherent control of intense few-cycle chirped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033807 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Y. Xiang, Y. Niu, and S. Gong, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff through the combination of a chirped laser and static electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053419 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  43. P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, “Time profile of harmonics generated by a single atom in a strong electromagnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750–R1753 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. Ph. Balcou and A. L’Huillier, “ Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 1447–1459 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. Wahlström, B. Carré, and A. L’Huillier, “ Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  47. A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  48. V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

C. Jin, A-T Le, C. Trallero-Herrero, and C. Lin, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the far field by spatial filtering with an intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Du and B. Hu, “Propagation effects of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 84,023817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, Q. Zhang, X. Zhu, and P. Lu, “Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation in pre-excited medium,” Opt. Express 19, 4728–4739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Orlando, P. Corso, E. Fiordilino, and F. Persico, “A three-colour scheme to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 43, 025602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gilbertson, S. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiang, Y. Niu, and S. Gong, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff through the combination of a chirped laser and static electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gaarde, J. Tate, and K. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B. 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carrera and S. Chu, “Extension of high-order harmonic generation cutoff via coherent control of intense few-cycle chirped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Milos̆ević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 308–317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Vafaee, H. Sabzyan, Z. Vafaee, and A. Katanforoush, “Detailed instantaneous ionization rate of H2+ in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. Abel, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31, 975–977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gaarde, M. Murakami, and R. Kienberger, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

2004

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. Wahlström, B. Carré, and A. L’Huillier, “ Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, “Time profile of harmonics generated by a single atom in a strong electromagnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750–R1753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50 – 30,000eV, Z = 1 – 92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou and A. L’Huillier, “ Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 1447–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. Feit, J. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M.

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. Abel, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31, 975–977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. Wahlström, B. Carré, and A. L’Huillier, “ Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anscombe, M.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

Antoine, P.

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A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
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Carré, B.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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Chang, Z.

S. Gilbertson, S. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
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X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
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Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
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Chen, S.

Chen, X.

J. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
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S. Gilbertson, S. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
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X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
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Chu, S.

J. Carrera and S. Chu, “Extension of high-order harmonic generation cutoff via coherent control of intense few-cycle chirped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033807 (2007).
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B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50 – 30,000eV, Z = 1 – 92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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De Silvestri, S.

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Du, H.

H. Du and B. Hu, “Propagation effects of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 84,023817 (2011).
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H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Feit, J. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fiordilino, E.

G. Orlando, P. Corso, E. Fiordilino, and F. Persico, “A three-colour scheme to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 43, 025602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Fleck, J.

M. Feit, J. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
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Gaarde, M.

M. Gaarde, J. Tate, and K. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B. 41, 132001 (2008).
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M. Gaarde, M. Murakami, and R. Kienberger, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053401 (2006).
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M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
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J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

Gilbertson, S.

S. Gilbertson, S. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50 – 30,000eV, Z = 1 – 92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

Heinrich, A.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

Heinzmann, U.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Henke, B.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50 – 30,000eV, Z = 1 – 92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Hong, W.

Hovrath, B.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, B.

H. Du and B. Hu, “Propagation effects of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 84,023817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
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Jin, C.

C. Jin, A-T Le, C. Trallero-Herrero, and C. Lin, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the far field by spatial filtering with an intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jullien, A.

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalpouzos, C.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katanforoush, A.

M. Vafaee, H. Sabzyan, Z. Vafaee, and A. Katanforoush, “Detailed instantaneous ionization rate of H2+ in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

Khan, S.

S. Gilbertson, S. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gaarde, M. Murakami, and R. Kienberger, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. T.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopold, R.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornelis, W.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. Wahlström, B. Carré, and A. L’Huillier, “ Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou and A. L’Huillier, “ Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 1447–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lan, P.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, A-T

C. Jin, A-T Le, C. Trallero-Herrero, and C. Lin, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the far field by spatial filtering with an intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Le Déroff, L.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leone, S.

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. Abel, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31, 975–977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

C. Jin, A-T Le, C. Trallero-Herrero, and C. Lin, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the far field by spatial filtering with an intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loh, Z.

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Lucchini, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maquet, A.

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, “Time profile of harmonics generated by a single atom in a strong electromagnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750–R1753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mevel, E.

Midorikawa, K.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milos?evic, D.

Milosevic, D.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mücke, O.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, N.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakami, M.

M. Gaarde, M. Murakami, and R. Kienberger, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, P.

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Negro, M.

Neumark, D.

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. Abel, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31, 975–977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y.

Y. Xiang, Y. Niu, and S. Gong, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff through the combination of a chirped laser and static electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, G.

G. Orlando, P. Corso, E. Fiordilino, and F. Persico, “A three-colour scheme to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 43, 025602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persico, F.

G. Orlando, P. Corso, E. Fiordilino, and F. Persico, “A three-colour scheme to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 43, 025602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Pfeifer, M. Abel, P. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z. Loh, M. Bell, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. Abel, D. Neumark, and S. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31, 975–977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piraux, B.

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, “Time profile of harmonics generated by a single atom in a strong electromagnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750–R1753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sabzyan, H.

M. Vafaee, H. Sabzyan, Z. Vafaee, and A. Katanforoush, “Detailed instantaneous ionization rate of H2+ in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanpera, A.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K.

M. Gaarde, J. Tate, and K. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B. 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schlup, P.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. Anscombe, K. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and U. Keller, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15, 899–902 (2005).

Schmidt, B.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skantzakis, E.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Starczewski, T.

Steiger, A.

M. Feit, J. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, J.

M. Gaarde, J. Tate, and K. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B. 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tosa, V.

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trallero-Herrero, C.

C. Jin, A-T Le, C. Trallero-Herrero, and C. Lin, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the far field by spatial filtering with an intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, G.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Vafaee, H. Sabzyan, Z. Vafaee, and A. Katanforoush, “Detailed instantaneous ionization rate of H2+ in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vafaee, Z.

M. Vafaee, H. Sabzyan, Z. Vafaee, and A. Katanforoush, “Detailed instantaneous ionization rate of H2+ in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Coherent continuum generation above 100 eV driven by an ir parametric source in a two-color scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033842 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Wahlström, C.

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P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
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J. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Wu, Y.

S. Gilbertson, S. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
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Yakovlev, V.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Yang, G.

Yun, C.

Zeng, Z.

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
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Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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Zhu, X.

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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Benis, G. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Electric fields of the chirped driving pulse (dotted blue curve), the control pulse (dashed red curve), the chirped two-color field (solid black curve), and the evolution of the ionization probability (dashed dotted pink curve). (b) Classical sketch of the electron dynamics in the chirped two-color pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)The harmonic spectrum from the pre-excited system with p=0.04 (bold red curve) and p=0.0 (thin black curve) and (b) its time-frequency distribution from the pre-excited system with p=0.04.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) On-axis harmonic spectra in the pre-excited medium with different initial population of the excited state of p = 0.02 (dashed black curve), p =0.04 (solid red curve) and p = 0.06 (dotted blue curve). (b) The electric fields of the driving pulses after propagation with the excited-state populations of p = 0.02 (dashed black curve), p =0.04 (solid red curve) and p = 0.06 (dotted blue curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

On-axis harmonic spectra after propagating different distances with the population of the excited state of p=0.04.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized temporal profiles of the on-axis attosecond pulses generated by filtering the 85th–95th harmonics in the macroscopic high-harmonic spectrum (solid red curve) and in the single atom high-harmonic spectrum (dashed black curve). (b) Temporal profiles of the on-axis attosecond pulses generated by filtering the 75th–95th harmonics in the macroscopic high-harmonic spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Spatiotemporal profiles of the attosecond pulses at the exit of gas jet. (b) Normalized intensity of the attosecond pulses along the line t = 0.144T0 in Fig. 6(a). (c) Time profile of radially integrated attosecond pulse in the near field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Spatiotemporal profiles of the attosecond pulses in the far field (z=0.5m). (b) Normalized intensity of the attosecond pulses along the line t = 0.144T0 in Fig. 7(a). (c) Time profile of radially integrated attosecond pulse in the far field (z=0.5m) with a radius r0 = 0.3mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time profiles of radially integrated attosecond pulses in the far field (a) z=0.5m and (b) z=1.0m is obtained using a spatial filter with different radius.

Equations (10)

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ψ ( x , 0 ) = α | g + β | e
a ( t ) = ψ ( x , t ) | V ( x ) x E ( t ) | ψ ( x , t )
1 g ( t ) = 1 n = 1 N | < φ n ( x , 0 ) | ψ ( x , t ) > | 2 .
w ( t ) = d ln ( n = 1 N | < φ n ( x , 0 ) | ψ ( x , t ) > | 2 ) d t .
a q ( ω ) = | 1 T 0 T a ( t ) e i q ω t d t | 2 ,
2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) ,
2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) + μ 0 2 P n l ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 .
I near ( t ) = 0 2 π r d r | ω 1 ω 2 E h ( r , ω ) e ( i ω t ) d ω | 2 .
I near ( t ) = 0 r 0 2 π r d r | ω 1 ω 2 E h f ( r , ω ) e ( i ω t ) d ω | 2 .
E ( t ) = E 0 f 0 ( t ) cos ( ω 0 t + δ ( t ) ) + E 1 f 1 ( t ) cos ( ω 1 t + ϕ C E P ) ,

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