Abstract

We proposed a method to assemble microspheres into a three-dimensional crystal by utilizing the giant nonequilibrium depletion force produced by nanoparticles. Such assembling was demonstrated in a colloid formed by suitably mixing silica microspheres and magnetic nanoparticles. The giant nonequilibrium depletion force was generated by quickly driving magnetic nanoparticles out of the focusing region of a laser light through both optical force and thermophoresis. The thermophoretic binding of silica beads is so tight that a colloidal photonic crystal can be achieved after complete evaporation of solvent. This technique could be employed for fabrication of colloidal photonic crystals and molecular sieves.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. S. Thijssen, R. Sprik, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, M. Megens, T. Narayanan, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited Light Propagation and Broadband Reflection in Photonic Air-Sphere Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(14), 2730–2733 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. W. J. Scott, S. M. Yang, G. Chabanis, N. Coombs, D. E. Williams, and G. A. Ozin, “Tin Dioxide Opals and Inverted Opals: Near-Ideal Microstructures for Gas Sensors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(19), 1468–1472 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, “Phase behaviour of concentrated suspensions of nearly hard colloidal spheres,” Nature320(6060), 340–342 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Trau, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Field-Induced Layering of Colloidal Crystals,” Science272(5262), 706–709 (1996).
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  8. P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. T. Korda and D. G. Grier, “Annealing thin colloidal crystals with optical gradient forces,” J. Chem. Phys.114(17), 7570–7573 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Park, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Crystallization of Mesoscale Particles over Large Areas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(13), 1028–1032 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. van Blaaderen and P. Wiltzius, “Growing large, well-oriented colloidal crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)9(10), 833–835 (1997).
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  12. B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, and J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of large-area, highly ordered, crack-free inverse opal films,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(23), 10354–10359 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Jiang and M. J. McFarland, “Large-scale fabrication of wafer-size colloidal crystals, macroporous polymers and nanocomposites by spin-coating,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13778–13786 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, “Micro- and nanoparticles self-assembly for virtually defect-free, adjustable monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(10), 3711–3714 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Duhr and D. Braun, “Two-dimensional colloidal crystals formed by thermophoresis and convection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(13), 131921 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Braun and A. Libchaber, “Trapping of DNA by thermophoretic depletion and convection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 188103 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. M. Weinert and D. Braun, “Observation of slip flow in thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 168301 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. R. Jiang, H. Wada, N. Yoshinaga, and M. Sano, “Manipulation of colloids by a nonequilibrium depletion force in a temperature gradient,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(20), 208301 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Piazza and A. Guarino, “Soret effect in interacting micellar solutions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(20), 208302 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. C. Crocker, J. A. Matteo, A. D. Dinsmore, and A. G. Yodh, “Entropic Attraction and Repulsion in Binary Colloids Probed with a Line Optical Tweezer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(21), 4352–4355 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, and J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of large-area, highly ordered, crack-free inverse opal films,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(23), 10354–10359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. R. Jiang, H. Wada, N. Yoshinaga, and M. Sano, “Manipulation of colloids by a nonequilibrium depletion force in a temperature gradient,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(20), 208301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, “Micro- and nanoparticles self-assembly for virtually defect-free, adjustable monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(10), 3711–3714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Weinert and D. Braun, “Observation of slip flow in thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 168301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng and D. J. Harrison, “Self-assembled colloidal arrays as three-dimensional nanofluidic sieves for separation of biomolecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem.79(6), 2289–2295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Duhr and D. Braun, “Two-dimensional colloidal crystals formed by thermophoresis and convection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(13), 131921 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Jiang and M. J. McFarland, “Large-scale fabrication of wafer-size colloidal crystals, macroporous polymers and nanocomposites by spin-coating,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13778–13786 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. Braun and A. Libchaber, “Trapping of DNA by thermophoretic depletion and convection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 188103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Piazza and A. Guarino, “Soret effect in interacting micellar solutions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(20), 208302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. W. J. Scott, S. M. Yang, G. Chabanis, N. Coombs, D. E. Williams, and G. A. Ozin, “Tin Dioxide Opals and Inverted Opals: Near-Ideal Microstructures for Gas Sensors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(19), 1468–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Korda and D. G. Grier, “Annealing thin colloidal crystals with optical gradient forces,” J. Chem. Phys.114(17), 7570–7573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. S. Thijssen, R. Sprik, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, M. Megens, T. Narayanan, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited Light Propagation and Broadband Reflection in Photonic Air-Sphere Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(14), 2730–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Crocker, J. A. Matteo, A. D. Dinsmore, and A. G. Yodh, “Entropic Attraction and Repulsion in Binary Colloids Probed with a Line Optical Tweezer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(21), 4352–4355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. H. Park, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Crystallization of Mesoscale Particles over Large Areas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(13), 1028–1032 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. van Blaaderen and P. Wiltzius, “Growing large, well-oriented colloidal crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)9(10), 833–835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. Trau, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Field-Induced Layering of Colloidal Crystals,” Science272(5262), 706–709 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, “Phase behaviour of concentrated suspensions of nearly hard colloidal spheres,” Nature320(6060), 340–342 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979

N. A. Clark, A. J. Hurd, and B. J. Ackerson, “Single colloidal crystal,” Nature281(5726), 57–60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ackerson, B. J.

N. A. Clark, A. J. Hurd, and B. J. Ackerson, “Single colloidal crystal,” Nature281(5726), 57–60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aizenberg, J.

B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, and J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of large-area, highly ordered, crack-free inverse opal films,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(23), 10354–10359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksay, I. A.

M. Trau, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Field-Induced Layering of Colloidal Crystals,” Science272(5262), 706–709 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asher, S. A.

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubry, N.

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, “Micro- and nanoparticles self-assembly for virtually defect-free, adjustable monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(10), 3711–3714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baaske, P.

P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, D.

F. M. Weinert and D. Braun, “Observation of slip flow in thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 168301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Duhr and D. Braun, “Two-dimensional colloidal crystals formed by thermophoresis and convection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(13), 131921 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Braun and A. Libchaber, “Trapping of DNA by thermophoretic depletion and convection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 188103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chabanis, G.

R. W. J. Scott, S. M. Yang, G. Chabanis, N. Coombs, D. E. Williams, and G. A. Ozin, “Tin Dioxide Opals and Inverted Opals: Near-Ideal Microstructures for Gas Sensors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(19), 1468–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark, A. J. Hurd, and B. J. Ackerson, “Single colloidal crystal,” Nature281(5726), 57–60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Coombs, N.

R. W. J. Scott, S. M. Yang, G. Chabanis, N. Coombs, D. E. Williams, and G. A. Ozin, “Tin Dioxide Opals and Inverted Opals: Near-Ideal Microstructures for Gas Sensors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(19), 1468–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crocker, J. C.

J. C. Crocker, J. A. Matteo, A. D. Dinsmore, and A. G. Yodh, “Entropic Attraction and Repulsion in Binary Colloids Probed with a Line Optical Tweezer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(21), 4352–4355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q. F.

Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S.

B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, and J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of large-area, highly ordered, crack-free inverse opal films,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(23), 10354–10359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, H. D.

Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dinsmore, A. D.

J. C. Crocker, J. A. Matteo, A. D. Dinsmore, and A. G. Yodh, “Entropic Attraction and Repulsion in Binary Colloids Probed with a Line Optical Tweezer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(21), 4352–4355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duhr, S.

P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Duhr and D. Braun, “Two-dimensional colloidal crystals formed by thermophoresis and convection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(13), 131921 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

P. T. Korda and D. G. Grier, “Annealing thin colloidal crystals with optical gradient forces,” J. Chem. Phys.114(17), 7570–7573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

R. Piazza and A. Guarino, “Soret effect in interacting micellar solutions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(20), 208302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Q.

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, D. J.

Y. Zeng and D. J. Harrison, “Self-assembled colloidal arrays as three-dimensional nanofluidic sieves for separation of biomolecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem.79(6), 2289–2295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatton, B.

B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, and J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of large-area, highly ordered, crack-free inverse opal films,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(23), 10354–10359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtz, J. H.

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurd, A. J.

N. A. Clark, A. J. Hurd, and B. J. Ackerson, “Single colloidal crystal,” Nature281(5726), 57–60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Janjua, M.

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, “Micro- and nanoparticles self-assembly for virtually defect-free, adjustable monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(10), 3711–3714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H. R.

H. R. Jiang, H. Wada, N. Yoshinaga, and M. Sano, “Manipulation of colloids by a nonequilibrium depletion force in a temperature gradient,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(20), 208301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, P.

P. Jiang and M. J. McFarland, “Large-scale fabrication of wafer-size colloidal crystals, macroporous polymers and nanocomposites by spin-coating,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13778–13786 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korda, P. T.

P. T. Korda and D. G. Grier, “Annealing thin colloidal crystals with optical gradient forces,” J. Chem. Phys.114(17), 7570–7573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

M. S. Thijssen, R. Sprik, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, M. Megens, T. Narayanan, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited Light Propagation and Broadband Reflection in Photonic Air-Sphere Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(14), 2730–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

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[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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J. C. Crocker, J. A. Matteo, A. D. Dinsmore, and A. G. Yodh, “Entropic Attraction and Repulsion in Binary Colloids Probed with a Line Optical Tweezer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(21), 4352–4355 (1999).
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P. Jiang and M. J. McFarland, “Large-scale fabrication of wafer-size colloidal crystals, macroporous polymers and nanocomposites by spin-coating,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13778–13786 (2004).
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Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
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S. H. Park, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Crystallization of Mesoscale Particles over Large Areas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(13), 1028–1032 (1998).
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P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, “Phase behaviour of concentrated suspensions of nearly hard colloidal spheres,” Nature320(6060), 340–342 (1986).
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S. H. Park, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Crystallization of Mesoscale Particles over Large Areas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(13), 1028–1032 (1998).
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P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, and J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of large-area, highly ordered, crack-free inverse opal films,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(23), 10354–10359 (2010).
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H. R. Jiang, H. Wada, N. Yoshinaga, and M. Sano, “Manipulation of colloids by a nonequilibrium depletion force in a temperature gradient,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(20), 208301 (2009).
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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, “Micro- and nanoparticles self-assembly for virtually defect-free, adjustable monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(10), 3711–3714 (2008).
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M. S. Thijssen, R. Sprik, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, M. Megens, T. Narayanan, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited Light Propagation and Broadband Reflection in Photonic Air-Sphere Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(14), 2730–2733 (1999).
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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
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P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, “Phase behaviour of concentrated suspensions of nearly hard colloidal spheres,” Nature320(6060), 340–342 (1986).
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M. S. Thijssen, R. Sprik, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, M. Megens, T. Narayanan, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited Light Propagation and Broadband Reflection in Photonic Air-Sphere Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(14), 2730–2733 (1999).
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H. R. Jiang, H. Wada, N. Yoshinaga, and M. Sano, “Manipulation of colloids by a nonequilibrium depletion force in a temperature gradient,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(20), 208301 (2009).
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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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F. M. Weinert and D. Braun, “Observation of slip flow in thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 168301 (2008).
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P. Baaske, F. M. Weinert, S. Duhr, K. H. Lemke, M. J. Russell, and D. Braun, “Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9346–9351 (2007).
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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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R. W. J. Scott, S. M. Yang, G. Chabanis, N. Coombs, D. E. Williams, and G. A. Ozin, “Tin Dioxide Opals and Inverted Opals: Near-Ideal Microstructures for Gas Sensors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(19), 1468–1472 (2001).
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Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
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J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
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Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
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J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
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R. W. J. Scott, S. M. Yang, G. Chabanis, N. Coombs, D. E. Williams, and G. A. Ozin, “Tin Dioxide Opals and Inverted Opals: Near-Ideal Microstructures for Gas Sensors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(19), 1468–1472 (2001).
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Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Self-induced transparency in colloidal liquids by Z-scan-based optical trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(15), 153111 (2008).
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J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2617–2619 (2008).
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J. C. Crocker, J. A. Matteo, A. D. Dinsmore, and A. G. Yodh, “Entropic Attraction and Repulsion in Binary Colloids Probed with a Line Optical Tweezer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(21), 4352–4355 (1999).
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H. R. Jiang, H. Wada, N. Yoshinaga, and M. Sano, “Manipulation of colloids by a nonequilibrium depletion force in a temperature gradient,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(20), 208301 (2009).
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P. Sheng, W. Wen, N. Wang, H. Ma, Z. Lin, W. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Lei, Z. L. Wang, D. G. Zheng, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Multiply coated microspheres. A platform for realizing fields-induced structural transition and photonic bandgap,” Pure Appl. Chem.72(1-2), 309–315 (2000).
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Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
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J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, “All-optical switching using controlled formation of large volume three-dimensional optical matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 233108 (2008).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc.

P. Jiang and M. J. McFarland, “Large-scale fabrication of wafer-size colloidal crystals, macroporous polymers and nanocomposites by spin-coating,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(42), 13778–13786 (2004).
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Z. M. Meng, H. Y. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, H. D. Deng, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Effects of optical forces on the transmission of magnetic fluids investigated by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys.106(4), 044905 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

M. S. Thijssen, R. Sprik, J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven, M. Megens, T. Narayanan, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited Light Propagation and Broadband Reflection in Photonic Air-Sphere Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(14), 2730–2733 (1999).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic showing the assembling process in a sealed glass cell. Big spheres in green color represent silica beads while small spheres in violet color represent magnetic nanoparticles. The moving directions of silica beads and magnetic nanoparticles are indicated by green and violet arrows, respectively. (b-f) are CCD images showing different stages in the formation of the 3D crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD image of a 3D crystal with five layers of regularly packed silica beads.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the diffraction pattern during the assembling process of the crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D structures obtained by using colloids with similar number densities of silica beads (cb) and different number densities of magnetic nanoparticles (cm). (a) cb = 3.14 x 109 cm−3, cm = 2.38 x 1016 cm−3; (b) cb = 3.40 x 109 cm−3, cm = 1.75 x 1016 cm−3 and (c) cb = 3.23 x 109 cm−3, cm = 4.20 x 1015 cm−3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of the 2D crystal formed with 0.7-μm silica beads (a) and the 3D crystal formed with 1.9-μm PS beads (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Shown are (a) the schematic of the experiment, (b) CCD and (c) SEM images of the 3D colloidal PC, and (d) diffraction pattern of the incident light showing crystallinity of the assembled microspheres.

Equations (1)

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S T * = S T b 2π( S T m 1 T )a λ 2 c m .

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