Abstract

We demonstrate high-finesse plasmonic metamaterial with strong resonant response in the near-IR spectral range fabricated using a thin low-loss film of gold monocrystal. The monocrystal was grown using specially formulated simplified crystal growth procedure based on epitaxial deposition, which makes it readily accessible to both plasmonics and metamaterials communities.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Optical properties of intermetallic compounds from first principles calculations: a search for the ideal plasmonic material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(14), 144211 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. J. Stirland, “Electron-bombardment-induced changes in the growth and epitaxy of evaporated gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 326–328 (1966).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial-induced transparency,” Opt. Photon. News 20(10), 22–27 (2009).
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  29. N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. H. H. Li, “Refractive index of alkali halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5(2), 329–349 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  35. P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Optical properties of intermetallic compounds from first principles calculations: a search for the ideal plasmonic material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(14), 144211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial-induced transparency,” Opt. Photon. News 20(10), 22–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

N. P. Blanchard, C. Smith, D. S. Martin, D. J. Hayton, T. E. Jenkins, and P. Weightman, “High-resolution measurements of the bulk dielectric constants of single crystal gold with application to reflection anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(8), 2931–2937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Hegner, P. Wagner, and G. Semenza, “Ultralarge atomically flat template-stripped Au surfaces for scanning probe microscopy,” Surf. Sci. 291(1-2), 39–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1976

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of alkali halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5(2), 329–349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

B. Lewis, “Physical processes in epitaxial growth,” Thin Solid Films 7(3-4), 179–217 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. Green, E. Bauer, R. L. Peck, and J. Dancy, “Stages of epitaxial film formation,” Krist. Tech. 5(3), 345–366 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

W. A. Jesser and J. W. Matthews, “Growth of copper, silver, and gold on twelve Alkali halides cleaved in vacuum,” J. Cryst. Growth 5(2), 83–89 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

K. M. Kunz, A. K. Green, and E. Bauer, “On the formation of single crystal films of F.C.C. metals on alkali halide cleavage planes in ultrahigh vacuum,” Phys. Status Solidi 18(1), 441–457 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stirland, “Electron-bombardment-induced changes in the growth and epitaxy of evaporated gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 326–328 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, M. D.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Optical properties of intermetallic compounds from first principles calculations: a search for the ideal plasmonic material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(14), 144211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashburn, P.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, J. H.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, E.

A. Green, E. Bauer, R. L. Peck, and J. Dancy, “Stages of epitaxial film formation,” Krist. Tech. 5(3), 345–366 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kunz, A. K. Green, and E. Bauer, “On the formation of single crystal films of F.C.C. metals on alkali halide cleavage planes in ultrahigh vacuum,” Phys. Status Solidi 18(1), 441–457 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, A.

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaber, M. G.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Optical properties of intermetallic compounds from first principles calculations: a search for the ideal plasmonic material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(14), 144211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, N. P.

N. P. Blanchard, C. Smith, D. S. Martin, D. J. Hayton, T. E. Jenkins, and P. Weightman, “High-resolution measurements of the bulk dielectric constants of single crystal gold with application to reflection anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(8), 2931–2937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bobb, D. A.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chen, W. T.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Convey, D.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dancy, J.

A. Green, E. Bauer, R. L. Peck, and J. Dancy, “Stages of epitaxial film formation,” Krist. Tech. 5(3), 345–366 (1970).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, F.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Fabrizio, E.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, M. J.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Optical properties of intermetallic compounds from first principles calculations: a search for the ideal plasmonic material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(14), 144211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilenko, A. V.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilenko, V. I.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, A.

A. Green, E. Bauer, R. L. Peck, and J. Dancy, “Stages of epitaxial film formation,” Krist. Tech. 5(3), 345–366 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. K.

K. M. Kunz, A. K. Green, and E. Bauer, “On the formation of single crystal films of F.C.C. metals on alkali halide cleavage planes in ultrahigh vacuum,” Phys. Status Solidi 18(1), 441–457 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hayton, D. J.

N. P. Blanchard, C. Smith, D. S. Martin, D. J. Hayton, T. E. Jenkins, and P. Weightman, “High-resolution measurements of the bulk dielectric constants of single crystal gold with application to reflection anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(8), 2931–2937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hegner, M.

M. Hegner, P. Wagner, and G. Semenza, “Ultralarge atomically flat template-stripped Au surfaces for scanning probe microscopy,” Surf. Sci. 291(1-2), 39–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, T. E.

N. P. Blanchard, C. Smith, D. S. Martin, D. J. Hayton, T. E. Jenkins, and P. Weightman, “High-resolution measurements of the bulk dielectric constants of single crystal gold with application to reflection anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(8), 2931–2937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jesser, W. A.

W. A. Jesser and J. W. Matthews, “Growth of copper, silver, and gold on twelve Alkali halides cleaved in vacuum,” J. Cryst. Growth 5(2), 83–89 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kelaita, Y. A.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunz, K. M.

K. M. Kunz, A. K. Green, and E. Bauer, “On the formation of single crystal films of F.C.C. metals on alkali halide cleavage planes in ultrahigh vacuum,” Phys. Status Solidi 18(1), 441–457 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P.

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuttge, M.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, B.

B. Lewis, “Physical processes in epitaxial growth,” Thin Solid Films 7(3-4), 179–217 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of alkali halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5(2), 329–349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, D. S.

N. P. Blanchard, C. Smith, D. S. Martin, D. J. Hayton, T. E. Jenkins, and P. Weightman, “High-resolution measurements of the bulk dielectric constants of single crystal gold with application to reflection anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(8), 2931–2937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, J. W.

W. A. Jesser and J. W. Matthews, “Growth of copper, silver, and gold on twelve Alkali halides cleaved in vacuum,” J. Cryst. Growth 5(2), 83–89 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mayy, M.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mead, P.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagpal, P.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, X. J.

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolaenko, A. E.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. H.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial-induced transparency,” Opt. Photon. News 20(10), 22–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peck, R. L.

A. Green, E. Bauer, R. L. Peck, and J. Dancy, “Stages of epitaxial film formation,” Krist. Tech. 5(3), 345–366 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Plum, E.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pryce, I. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritzo, B. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, M.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semenza, G.

M. Hegner, P. Wagner, and G. Semenza, “Ultralarge atomically flat template-stripped Au surfaces for scanning probe microscopy,” Surf. Sci. 291(1-2), 39–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, N.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

N. P. Blanchard, C. Smith, D. S. Martin, D. J. Hayton, T. E. Jenkins, and P. Weightman, “High-resolution measurements of the bulk dielectric constants of single crystal gold with application to reflection anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(8), 2931–2937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. M.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stirland, D. J.

D. J. Stirland, “Electron-bombardment-induced changes in the growth and epitaxy of evaporated gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 326–328 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tiwald, T.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tompkins, H. G.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoeven, J.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, P.

M. Hegner, P. Wagner, and G. Semenza, “Ultralarge atomically flat template-stripped Au surfaces for scanning probe microscopy,” Surf. Sci. 291(1-2), 39–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weightman, P.

N. P. Blanchard, C. Smith, D. S. Martin, D. J. Hayton, T. E. Jenkins, and P. Weightman, “High-resolution measurements of the bulk dielectric constants of single crystal gold with application to reflection anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(8), 2931–2937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S. M.

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. J. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial-induced transparency,” Opt. Photon. News 20(10), 22–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. A. Bobb, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, A. V. Gavrilenko, P. Mead, V. I. Gavrilenko, and M. A. Noginov, “Engineering of low-loss metal for nanoplasmonic and metamaterials applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stirland, “Electron-bombardment-induced changes in the growth and epitaxy of evaporated gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 326–328 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

W. A. Jesser and J. W. Matthews, “Growth of copper, silver, and gold on twelve Alkali halides cleaved in vacuum,” J. Cryst. Growth 5(2), 83–89 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of alkali halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5(2), 329–349 (1976).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gold film epitaxially grown on LiF. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of the film. Inset shows the signs of crystalline structure observed in the film at an early stage of deposition: the film is seen to grow from cubic islands with some gaps and stitches appearing along <100> directions. (b) Surface roughness of the film imaged with an atomic force microscope. Colours show amplitude of the height fluctuations. (c) 1D x-ray diffraction pattern of gold film/LiF with (200) peaks. A small peak at 38° is associated with (111) reflection of gold film, and is due is to imperfect condensation on the facet. (d) Imaginary part of the dielectric constant of gold as a function of wavelength. Green circles show values retrieved for the epitaxially grown film using spectroscopic ellipsometry (large point spread above 1300 nm is due to reduced sensitivity of our spectrometer in the near-IR). The reference data are represented by red squares (bulk single crystal [22]), black circles (thin film with large monocrystal domains [23]) and black open squares (polycrystalline thin film [24]). Inset shows the measured and reference data for the real part of the dielectric constant.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-finesse infrared plasmonic metamaterial. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of complex asymmetrically-split ring pattern milled in epitaxial gold film. Yellow dashed box indicates elementary unit cell of the periodic pattern (size/wavelength ratio is less than 1/4). Inset shows 3D view of the milled structure. (b) Reflection spectra of the plasmonic metamaterial. Green circles show experimentally measured values, while black curve represents the result of simulation. Inset shows orientation of incident polarization with respect to the metamaterial pattern. (c) Transmission spectra of the plasmonic metamaterial. Green circles show experimentally measured values, black curve - result of simulation. Inset shows the model of the structure’s unit cell used in simulations.

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