Abstract

When analyzing the fringe pattern of an interferogram to determine atmospheric wind velocities, inhomogeneities in the optical components and illumination can introduce uncertainty into the results. These variations in the image, which are generally characteristics of the measurement device, are commonly referred to as the “flat-field” of the system. In this work we discuss the effect of this flat-field on measurements made with a Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometer. It is found that the flat-field can have a significant effect on any single calculation of the fringe phase, but because the flat-field affects all measurements made with the same system, the uncertainty in the derived wind velocity, which is determined through a comparison of two interferogram fringe phases, typically remains small. Nonetheless, it is recommended to account for the flat-field when analyzing DASH data, if possible. To this end we discuss a method for determining the flat-field using only temperature variations of the system, which is particularly suitable for space-based instruments.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010

2009

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

C. R. Englert and J. M. Harlander, “Flatfielding in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4583–4590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry-Perot interferometer network: a review,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, D. D.

Breed, A. M.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brun, J. F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conde, M. G.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dyson, P. L.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, J. T.

England, S. L.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Englert, C. R.

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gell, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greet, P. A.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J. M.

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huba, J. D.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Innis, J. L.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, G.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krall, J.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McLandress, C.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W

J. W Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry-Perot interferometer network: a review,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. J.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niciejewski, R. J.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ortland, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ossakow, S. L.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. J.

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys.

J. W Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry-Perot interferometer network: a review,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Astro. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

Heliophysics Roadmap Team, “Heliophysics: The solar and space physics of a new era,” NASA Advisory Council, Washington DC, (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The three models used to test the effect of the flat-field on fringe pattern analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The original interferogram with flat-field effects. (b) The three phase shifted interferograms used to determine the flat-field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The modulated and non-modulated parts of the interferogram. For comparison the flat-field as derived by blocking each arm of the interferometer is also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The original interferogram now with the flat-field corrected (removed). (b) The close up view emphasizes that the feature near 685 pixels has been eliminated.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of simulated flat-fields on perfect interferograms with respect to a reference calibration line. The values in the last two columns are calculated with respect to their associated bold value, which is the associated zero-wind measurement.

Equations (14)

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δ ϕ = 4 π Δ d σ ( v / c ) ,
I ( x ) = j S j ( 1 + E j ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ j x + Φ 0 j + δ ϕ j ) ) ,
F ( x ) I ( x ) = F ( x ) S ( 1 + E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ) = F ( x ) S + F ( x ) S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) .
f ( σ ) = 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S + F ( x ) S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] = 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S ] + 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] .
T ( σ ) f ( σ ) = T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S ] + T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] .
I ( x ) = 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S ] ] + 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] ] .
T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ S ] = 0
( 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] ] ) = 1 2 ( S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) )
𝔌 ( 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] ] ) = 1 2 ( S E ( x ) sin ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ) .
𝔌 ( I ( x ) ) ( I ( x ) ) = 2 S E ( x ) sin ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) 2 S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) = tan ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ,
Φ ( x ) 2 π κ x + δ ϕ = tan 1 ( 𝔌 ( I ( x ) ) ( I ( x ) ) )
Φ ( x ) = tan 1 [ 𝔌 ( 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S ] ] + 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S E ( x ) si ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] ] ) ( 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S ] ] + 𝔉 1 [ T ( σ ) 𝔉 [ F ( x ) S E ( x ) cos ( 2 π κ x + δ ϕ ) ] ] ) ] .
M i ( x , κ 0 ) = I i ( x ) I j ( x ) cos Φ i ( x ) cos Φ j ( x ) , i j ,
N i ( x , κ 0 ) = I i ( x ) M ( x , κ 0 ) cos Φ i ( x ) ,

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