Abstract

The effect of wall-induced Ramsey interference on the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in an anti-relaxation coated vapor cell is studied in a four-level closed N-type atomic system. We show that the atomic coherence spontaneously transferred from the excited states to the ground states may interfere via the Ramsey sequence of the moving atoms with decoherence-free wall collisions. The spectral narrowing of the EIA resonance lineshape is induced by the Ramsey effect because of the long lifetime of the spontaneously transferred atomic coherence between the ground states. This calculated Ramsey EIA spectrum is in good agreement with the narrow EIA spectrum obtained experimentally in the anti-relaxation coated vapor cell.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I.-H. Bae and H. S. Moon, “Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053806 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Arimondo, “Relaxation processes in coherent-population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), 2216–2223 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63(4), 043813 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Repeated interaction model for diffusion-induced Ramsey narrowing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14128–14141 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5788–5791 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Klein, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapour cells,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2583–2591 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Klein, M. Hohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013826 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. J. Kim and H. S. Moon, “Electromagnetically induced absorption with sub-kHz spectral width in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell,” Opt. Express 19(1), 168–174 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Ram, M. Pattabiraman, and C. Vijayan, “Effect of ellipticity on Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency resonances with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033417 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Tilchin, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, and O. Firstenberg, “Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 83(5), 053812 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

I.-H. Bae and H. S. Moon, “Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Klein, M. Hohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tilchin, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, and O. Firstenberg, “Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 83(5), 053812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kim and H. S. Moon, “Electromagnetically induced absorption with sub-kHz spectral width in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell,” Opt. Express 19(1), 168–174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Ram, M. Pattabiraman, and C. Vijayan, “Effect of ellipticity on Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency resonances with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Repeated interaction model for diffusion-induced Ramsey narrowing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14128–14141 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Klein, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapour cells,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2583–2591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63(4), 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5788–5791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Arimondo, “Relaxation processes in coherent-population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), 2216–2223 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akulshin, A. M.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, E. B.

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alzetta, G.

F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreeva, C.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo, “Relaxation processes in coherent-population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), 2216–2223 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arsenovic, D.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bae, I.-H.

I.-H. Bae and H. S. Moon, “Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balabas, M. V.

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ban, G.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, S.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biancalana, V.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boca, A.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boozer, A. D.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowen, W. P.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budker, D.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5788–5791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burchianti, A.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cartaleva, S.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. W.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dancheva, Y.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrijevic, J.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.-M.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erhard, M.

M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63(4), 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Failache, H.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Firstenberg, O.

E. Tilchin, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, and O. Firstenberg, “Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 83(5), 053812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Friedmann, H.

C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goren, C.

C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graf, M. T.

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grujic, Z.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guzman, J. S.

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63(4), 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hohensee, M.

M. Klein, M. Hohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imamolu, A.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelenkovic, B. M.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kerner, K.

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

Kimball, D. F.

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitching, J.

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

M. Klein, M. Hohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Klein, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapour cells,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2583–2591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krmpot, A.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmich, A.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. J.

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lezama, A.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorent, V.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marinelli, C.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, E.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mijailovic, M.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moon, H. S.

I.-H. Bae and H. S. Moon, “Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kim and H. S. Moon, “Electromagnetically induced absorption with sub-kHz spectral width in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell,” Opt. Express 19(1), 168–174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nasyrov, K.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noh, H.-R.

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Repeated interaction model for diffusion-induced Ramsey narrowing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14128–14141 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Klein, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapour cells,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2583–2591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panic, B.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pattabiraman, M.

N. Ram, M. Pattabiraman, and C. Vijayan, “Effect of ellipticity on Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency resonances with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

M. Klein, M. Hohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Repeated interaction model for diffusion-induced Ramsey narrowing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14128–14141 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Klein, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapour cells,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2583–2591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pustelny, S.

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ram, N.

N. Ram, M. Pattabiraman, and C. Vijayan, “Effect of ellipticity on Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency resonances with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renzoni, F.

F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romalis, M. V.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluh, M.

C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J. E.

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taichenachev, A. V.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tilchin, E.

E. Tilchin, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, and O. Firstenberg, “Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 83(5), 053812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsigutkin, K.

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tumaikin, A. M.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Valente, P.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vijayan, C.

N. Ram, M. Pattabiraman, and C. Vijayan, “Effect of ellipticity on Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency resonances with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

M. Klein, M. Hohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Repeated interaction model for diffusion-induced Ramsey narrowing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14128–14141 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Klein, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapour cells,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2583–2591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson-Gordon, A. D.

E. Tilchin, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, and O. Firstenberg, “Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 83(5), 053812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wojciechowski, A.

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C.

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

Yashchuk, V. V.

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5788–5791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. J.

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V. I.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zolotorev, M.

D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5788–5791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Klein, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapour cells,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2583–2591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423(6941), 731–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (17)

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 012502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Graf, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. Budker, E. B. Alexandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 023401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 012903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Guzman, A. Wojciechowski, J. E. Stalnaker, K. Tsigutkin, V. V. Yashchuk, and D. Budker, “Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation and Zeeman and hyperfine relaxation of potassium atoms in a paraffin-coated cell,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo, “Relaxation processes in coherent-population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), 2216–2223 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63(4), 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I.-H. Bae and H. S. Moon, “Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Klein, M. Hohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ram, M. Pattabiraman, and C. Vijayan, “Effect of ellipticity on Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency resonances with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Tilchin, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, and O. Firstenberg, “Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 83(5), 053812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5788–5791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Four-level closed N-type atomic system. The two coupling fields with Rabi frequencies Ω1 and Ω3 are coupled to the |1|2 and |3|4 transitions, respectively. The probe field with Rabi frequency Ω2 is coupled to the |2|3 transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time sequence of the interaction with a moving atom and a laser beam in an anti-relaxation coated vapor cell: first interaction time (ti1), flight time (tf), and second interaction time (ti2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical EIA spectrum in the four-level closed N-type atomic system (in the case of tf = ti1 = 0 or tf = ti2 = 0). (b) Magnified EIA spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Numerically calculated EIA interference fringe (ti1 = ti2 = 7.4 μs and tf = 0.31 ms). (b) Numerically calculated EIT interference fringe in a three-level closed Λ-type atomic system (a12 = 0.8, a32 = 0.2, and a34 = 0).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) EIA interference fringes according to the velocities of the atoms (v = 140, 240, and 340 m/s). (b) Numerically integrated weighted EIA interference fringes with Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) EIA Ramsey fringes according to the relaxation-free atomic path length (Lf = 25, 85, and 145 mm) (b) Numerically integrated weighted EIA Ramsey fringes with Poisson distribution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observed EIA spectrum of the 5S1/2(F = 2)–5P3/2(F' = 3) cycling transition of 87Rb in the paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell [18].

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E n (r,t)= E 0n (r,t) e iωt+kr +c.c. ( n=1, 2, 3 ),
ρ ^ t = 1 i [ H 0 + H int , ρ ^ ]+ ρ ^ sp t ,
H 0 = g=1,3 [ g g μ B B(g2) ] |gg|+ e=2,4 [ ω 0 + g e μ B B(e3) ] |ee|,
H int = 1 2 Ω g=1,3 e=2,4 a ge |eg| e iωt +H.c.,
e| ρ ^ sp t |g=(Γ/2)e| ρ ^ |g,
e| ρ ^ sp t | e' =Γe| ρ ^ | e' ,
g| ρ ^ sp t | g' =Γ a ge a g'e' e| ρ ^ | e' ,

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