Abstract

We demonstrate a self-assembly strategy for fabricating three dimensional (3D) metamaterials. This strategy represents the desired 3D curving prongs of the split ring resonators (SRRs) erected by metal stress force with appropriate thin film parameters. Transmittance spectra and field patterns corresponding to each resonance modes are calculated by finite element method (FEM). The eigen-modes of the SRRs can be excited by normal illumination with polarization state parallel to the erected SRRs, which are unlike for the cases of planar SRRs. This method opens a promising fabrication process for the application of tailored 3D SRRs.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

B. Lahiri, S. G. McMeekin, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Magnetic response of split ring resonators (SRRs) at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3210–3218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Materials science. Optical metamaterials--more bulky and less lossy,” Science 330(6011), 1633–1634 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. P. Ho, M. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, and W. Fang, “A robust and reliable stress-induced self-assembly supporting mechanism for optical devices,” Microsyst. Technol. 11, 214–220 (2005).

Y. V. Nastaushev, V. Y. Prinz, and S. N. Svitasheva, “A technique for fabricating Au/Ti micro- and nanotube,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 908–912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Merlin, “Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1290–1292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(52), 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, “Nanotechnology. Thin solid films roll up into nanotubes,” Nature 410(6825), 168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

R. W. Hoffman, “Stresses in the thin films: the relevance of grain boundaries and impurities,” Thin Solid Films 34(2), 185–190 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Brener, I.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burckel, D. B.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. J.

Chen, W. T.

Chipouline, A.

Chui, S. T.

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

Eberl, K.

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, “Nanotechnology. Thin solid films roll up into nanotubes,” Nature 410(6825), 168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, A. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, W.

Y. P. Ho, M. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, and W. Fang, “A robust and reliable stress-induced self-assembly supporting mechanism for optical devices,” Microsyst. Technol. 11, 214–220 (2005).

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Ginn, J. C.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, G. Y.

Halas, N. J.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(52), 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, Y. P.

Y. P. Ho, M. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, and W. Fang, “A robust and reliable stress-induced self-assembly supporting mechanism for optical devices,” Microsyst. Technol. 11, 214–220 (2005).

Hoffman, R. W.

R. W. Hoffman, “Stresses in the thin films: the relevance of grain boundaries and impurities,” Thin Solid Films 34(2), 185–190 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hollars, C. W.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, C. T.

Huser, T. R.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. B.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(52), 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, N. P.

Kaelberer, T.

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khokhar, A. Z.

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

Lahiri, B.

Lane, S. M.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H.-Y.

Y. P. Ho, M. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, and W. Fang, “A robust and reliable stress-induced self-assembly supporting mechanism for optical devices,” Microsyst. Technol. 11, 214–220 (2005).

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMeekin, S. G.

Merlin, R.

R. Merlin, “Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1290–1292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nastaushev, Y. V.

Y. V. Nastaushev, V. Y. Prinz, and S. N. Svitasheva, “A technique for fabricating Au/Ti micro- and nanotube,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 908–912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oubre, C.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Petschulat, J.

Plum, E.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prinz, V. Y.

Y. V. Nastaushev, V. Y. Prinz, and S. N. Svitasheva, “A technique for fabricating Au/Ti micro- and nanotube,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 908–912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Schmidt, O. G.

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, “Nanotechnology. Thin solid films roll up into nanotubes,” Nature 410(6825), 168 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

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Sinclair, M. B.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Svitasheva, S. N.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

Ten Eyck, G. A.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. T. Chen, C. J. Chen, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, L. Zhou, G. Y. Guo, C. T. Hsiao, K. Y. Yang, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-molecules,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12837–12842 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Materials science. Optical metamaterials--more bulky and less lossy,” Science 330(6011), 1633–1634 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendt, J. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
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K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. I. Zheludev, “A roadmap for metamaterials,” Opt. Photon. News 22(3), 30–35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Chen, C. J. Chen, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, L. Zhou, G. Y. Guo, C. T. Hsiao, K. Y. Yang, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-molecules,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12837–12842 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Merlin, “Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1290–1292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol.

Y. P. Ho, M. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, and W. Fang, “A robust and reliable stress-induced self-assembly supporting mechanism for optical devices,” Microsyst. Technol. 11, 214–220 (2005).

Nano Lett.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

Y. V. Nastaushev, V. Y. Prinz, and S. N. Svitasheva, “A technique for fabricating Au/Ti micro- and nanotube,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 908–912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, “Nanotechnology. Thin solid films roll up into nanotubes,” Nature 410(6825), 168 (2001).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Photon. News

N. I. Zheludev, “A roadmap for metamaterials,” Opt. Photon. News 22(3), 30–35 (2011).
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L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(52), 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
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T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Materials science. Optical metamaterials--more bulky and less lossy,” Science 330(6011), 1633–1634 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram with the feature sizes of 3D SRRs before (a) and after (b) released from the substrate by dry etching method. The parameters of our designed SRRs are L1 = 250 nm, L2 = 300 nm, W = 125 nm, H = 2 μm, D = 2 μm, G = 600 nm, Px = 8 μm and Py = 3 μm, respectively. (c) The fabricated sample is illuminated by an x-polarized light at normal incidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The schematic diagrams of test arms before and after dry etching process. (b) The oblique view of SEM micrographs with tilting angle of 40þfor the test arms. The pattern is designed for four kinds of arm lengths with two different arm widths, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The oblique view of SEM micrographs with tilting angle of 40 degree for the 3D SRRs. (a), (b) and (c) show SRRs with the same arm length of 2μm but with different Al film thickness, respectively. The metal thickness (a) = (d) = 8 nm, (b) = (e) = 5 nm and (c) = (f) = 4 nm, respectively. Figures (d), (e) and (f) are the SRRs with arm length of 3 μm. Notice that the bar-shapes on the substrate represent the residual fused silica material underneath the metal film, resulting from the shadow effect of etching process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The simulation transmittance spectra of the SRR arrays with (a) the same geometric and (b) the same total length but different gap widths (G = 250 nm, 600 nm, 1200 nm, and 2000 nm) based on the unit cell shown in Fig. 1(b). In (a), there exists three transmission dips at about 20.8 THz, 39.0 THz and 62.8 THz for x-polarization case. The magnetic field patterns and the induced current distribution (red arrow) of three resonance modes in the case of G = 600 nm are shown in (c)-(e) and (f)-(h), respectively. Here both of the spectra and field patterns are normalized to the incident waves.

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