Abstract

Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging is finding rapid adoption in security applications such as concealed object detection under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people in both indoors and outdoors. However, the imaging system often suffers from the diffraction limit and the low signal level. Therefore, suitable intelligent image processing algorithms would be required for automatic detection and recognition of the concealed objects. This paper proposes real-time outdoor concealed-object detection and recognition with a radiometric imaging system. The concealed object region is extracted by the multi-level segmentation. A novel approach is proposed to measure similarity between two binary images. Principal component analysis (PCA) regularizes the shape in terms of translation and rotation. A geometric-based feature vector is composed of shape descriptors, which can achieve scale and orientation-invariant and distortion-tolerant property. Class is decided by minimum Euclidean distance between normalized feature vectors. Experiments confirm that the proposed methods provide fast and reliable recognition of the concealed object carried by a moving human subject.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(3), 39–50 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Appleby and R. N. Anderton, “Millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave imaging for security and surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. National Research Council, Assessment of millimeter-wave and terahertz technology for detection and identification of concealed explosives and weapons (National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007).
  5. A. Denisov, A. Gorishnyak, S. Kuzmin, V. Miklashevich, V. Obolonskv, V. Radzikhovsky, B. Shevchuk, B. Yshenko, V. Uliz’ko, and J. Son, “Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8 mm wave imaging system,” in Proceeding of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, ISSTT 2009 (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 2009), 227–229.
  6. M. R. Fetterman, J. Grata, G. Jubic, W. L. Kiser, and A. Visnansky, “Simulation, acquisition and analysis of passive millimeter-wave images in remote sensing applications,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20503–20515 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20503 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).
  8. H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).
  9. M.-K. Jung, Y.-S. Chang, S.-H. Kim, W.-G. Kim, and Y.-H. Kim, “Development of passive millimeter wave imaging system at W-band,” in Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (Busan, Korea, , 2009), pp. 1–2.
  10. H. Lee, W. Kim, J. Seong, D. Kim, K. Na, M. Jung, Y. Chang, S. Kim, and Y. Kim, “Test model of millimeter-wave imaging radiometer equipment (MIRAE), presented at the International Symposium of Remote Sensing, Busan, South Korea Oct. 23-Nov. 2 2007.
  11. S. Yeom, D.-S. Lee, J. Son, M. K. Jun, Y. Jang, S.-W. Jung, and S.-J. Lee, “Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2530–2536 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D.-S. Lee, S. Yeom, M.-K. Lee, S.-W. Jung, and Y. Chang, “Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection,” Opt. Eng. Computational Imaging Special Section, (to be published).
  13. L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. L. Jacobs and O. Furxhi, “Target identification and navigation performance modeling of a passive millimeter wave imager,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E94–E105 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Belongie, J. Malik, and J. Puzicha, “Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(4), 509–522 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. C. Gonzalez, Digital Image Processing 2/E (Prentice-Hall Inc., 2003).
  17. I. Pitas, Digital image processing algorithms and applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).
  18. S. Yeom and D. Lee, “Radiometer automatic detection and image fusion algorithm development,” Samsung Thales Final Report, 2011.

2011 (2)

L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeom, D.-S. Lee, J. Son, M. K. Jun, Y. Jang, S.-W. Jung, and S.-J. Lee, “Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2530–2536 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

E. L. Jacobs and O. Furxhi, “Target identification and navigation performance modeling of a passive millimeter wave imager,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E94–E105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

2009 (1)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

R. Appleby and R. N. Anderton, “Millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave imaging for security and surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(3), 39–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Belongie, J. Malik, and J. Puzicha, “Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(4), 509–522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, R. N.

R. Appleby and R. N. Anderton, “Millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave imaging for security and surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby and R. N. Anderton, “Millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave imaging for security and surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belongie, S.

S. Belongie, J. Malik, and J. Puzicha, “Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(4), 509–522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bryllert, T.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Chang, Y.

D.-S. Lee, S. Yeom, M.-K. Lee, S.-W. Jung, and Y. Chang, “Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection,” Opt. Eng. Computational Imaging Special Section, (to be published).

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Chen, H.-M.

H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Cui, G. L.

L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R. J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Fetterman, M. R.

Furxhi, O.

Grata, J.

Hasegawa, T.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Hirai, H.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Jacobs, E. L.

Jang, Y.

Jiang, Z. M.

L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jubic, G.

Jun, M. K.

Jung, S.-W.

S. Yeom, D.-S. Lee, J. Son, M. K. Jun, Y. Jang, S.-W. Jung, and S.-J. Lee, “Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2530–2536 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Lee, S. Yeom, M.-K. Lee, S.-W. Jung, and Y. Chang, “Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection,” Opt. Eng. Computational Imaging Special Section, (to be published).

Kato, S.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Kiser, W. L.

Lee, D.-S.

S. Yeom, D.-S. Lee, J. Son, M. K. Jun, Y. Jang, S.-W. Jung, and S.-J. Lee, “Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2530–2536 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Lee, S. Yeom, M.-K. Lee, S.-W. Jung, and Y. Chang, “Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection,” Opt. Eng. Computational Imaging Special Section, (to be published).

Lee, M.-K.

D.-S. Lee, S. Yeom, M.-K. Lee, S.-W. Jung, and Y. Chang, “Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection,” Opt. Eng. Computational Imaging Special Section, (to be published).

Lee, S.

H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

Li, L. C.

L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Llombart, N.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Malik, J.

S. Belongie, J. Malik, and J. Puzicha, “Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(4), 509–522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, T.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Mehdi, I.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Mizuno, K.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Moffa, P.

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(3), 39–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morichika, K.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Nakada, J.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Niikura, H.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Puzicha, J.

S. Belongie, J. Malik, and J. Puzicha, “Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(4), 509–522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rao, R. M.

H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Sawaya, K.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Shoucri, M.

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(3), 39–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Slamani, M.-A.

H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.

Takahashi, J.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Takeda, M.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Uemura, J.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Varshney, P. K.

H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Visnansky, A.

Yamada, K.

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Yang, J. Y.

L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, S.

S. Yeom, D.-S. Lee, J. Son, M. K. Jun, Y. Jang, S.-W. Jung, and S.-J. Lee, “Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2530–2536 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Lee, S. Yeom, M.-K. Lee, S.-W. Jung, and Y. Chang, “Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection,” Opt. Eng. Computational Imaging Special Section, (to be published).

Yujiri, L.

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(3), 39–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(3), 39–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

H.-M. Chen, S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, “Imaging for concealed weapon detection: a tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22(2), 52–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

S. Belongie, J. Malik, and J. Puzicha, “Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(4), 509–522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves (2)

L. C. Li, J. Y. Yang, G. L. Cui, Z. M. Jiang, and X. Zheng, “Method of passive MMW image detection and identification for close target,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 32(1), 102–115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared, Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1297–1307 (2009).

Opt. Eng. (1)

D.-S. Lee, S. Yeom, M.-K. Lee, S.-W. Jung, and Y. Chang, “Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection,” Opt. Eng. Computational Imaging Special Section, (to be published).

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. Appleby and R. N. Anderton, “Millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave imaging for security and surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Sato, K. Sawaya, K. Mizuno, J. Uemura, M. Takeda, J. Takahashi, K. Yamada, K. Morichika, T. Hasegawa, H. Hirai, H. Niikura, T. Matsuzaki, S. Kato, and J. Nakada, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications,” Proc. SPIE 7672, 76720V (2010).

Other (7)

M.-K. Jung, Y.-S. Chang, S.-H. Kim, W.-G. Kim, and Y.-H. Kim, “Development of passive millimeter wave imaging system at W-band,” in Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (Busan, Korea, , 2009), pp. 1–2.

H. Lee, W. Kim, J. Seong, D. Kim, K. Na, M. Jung, Y. Chang, S. Kim, and Y. Kim, “Test model of millimeter-wave imaging radiometer equipment (MIRAE), presented at the International Symposium of Remote Sensing, Busan, South Korea Oct. 23-Nov. 2 2007.

National Research Council, Assessment of millimeter-wave and terahertz technology for detection and identification of concealed explosives and weapons (National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007).

A. Denisov, A. Gorishnyak, S. Kuzmin, V. Miklashevich, V. Obolonskv, V. Radzikhovsky, B. Shevchuk, B. Yshenko, V. Uliz’ko, and J. Son, “Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8 mm wave imaging system,” in Proceeding of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, ISSTT 2009 (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 2009), 227–229.

R. C. Gonzalez, Digital Image Processing 2/E (Prentice-Hall Inc., 2003).

I. Pitas, Digital image processing algorithms and applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).

S. Yeom and D. Lee, “Radiometer automatic detection and image fusion algorithm development,” Samsung Thales Final Report, 2011.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) passive MMW imaging system, (b) a block diagram of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of concealed object segmentation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the concealed object recognition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) target image, (b) eigenvectors of the target, (c) transformed target by PCA, (d) size normalization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometric feature descriptors, (a) size number of pixels, lengths of major and minor axis, and the perimeter (number of boundary pixels), (b) size of each quadrant.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Training target of real images, (a) gun (class 1, C1), (b) metal plate (class 2, C2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Binary image of training target, (a) gun, (b) metal plate, (c) enlarged image by 3, 5, and 7 times of Fig. 7(a) and 7(b), respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Feature extraction of the target objects, gun of, (a) passive MMW images, (b) multi-level segmentation, (c) feature extraction, metal plate of, (d) passive MMW images, (e) multi-level segmentation, (f) feature extraction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Computational time of the concealed object recognition.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Feature Vector Components

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Table 2 Feature Vectors of the Target Object

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Table 3 Probabilities of Correct Decision

Equations (6)

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m x = 1 n o j=1 n o x j
Σ xx = 1 n o j=1 n o ( x j m x ) ( x j m x ) t
Σ xx Ε=ΕΛ
y j = Ε t ( x j m x ) , j=1,..., n o
j ^ = argmin j=1,.., n c k=1 c ( o test (k) x m|j (k) 1 ) 2 ,
P D = Number of decision for class j Number of frames capturing class j

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