Abstract

We report on the modulation characteristics of indium phosphide (InP) based microdisks heterogeneously integrated on a silicon–on–insulator (SOI) waveguide. We present static extinction ratios and dynamic operation up to 10 Gb/s. Operation with a bit–error rate below 1 × 10−9 is demonstrated at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Gb/s and the performance is compared with that of a commercial modulator. Power penalties are analyzed with respect to the pattern length. The power consumption is calculated and compared with state–of–the–art integrated modulator concepts. We demonstrate that InP microdisk modulators combine low–power and low–voltage operation with low footprint and high–speed. Moreover, the devices can be fabricated using the same technology as for lasers, detectors and wavelength converters, making them very attractive for co–integration.

© 2012 OSA

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Sysak, J. O. Anthes, J. E. Bowers, O. Raday, and R. Jones, “Integration of hybrid silicon lasers and electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express16(17), 12478–12486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

2004

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol.1(11), 1–7 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anthes, J. O.

Asghari, M.

Atwater, H. A.

Baets, R.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol.1(11), 1–7 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet–Gamard, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boucart, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouche, N.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Brillouet, F.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

Carpentier, D.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, H.-W.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christiaens, I.

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol.1(11), 1–7 (2004).

Cohen, O.

Damlencourt, J. F.

De Mesel, K.

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol.1(11), 1–7 (2004).

De Vries, T.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Derouin, E.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Diest, K. A.

Dong, P.

Dorren, H. J. S.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Fidaner, O.

Fortin, C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaborit, F.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghaffari, A.

Goldstein, L.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Halbwax, M.

Harris, J. S.

Hofrichter, J.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kamins, T. I.

Kawano, K.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kotaka, I.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kuo, Y. H.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Lagahe, C.

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Lentine, A. L.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A. S.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maine, S.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mitomi, O.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, M.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nojima, S.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Offrein, B. J.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

Plais, A.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Raday, O.

Raz, O.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remy, J. C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol.1(11), 1–7 (2004).

Rojo Romeo, P.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Rooks, M. J.

Roth, J. E.

Rubin, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salet, P.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaevitz, R. K.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shearn, M. J.

Smit, M.

Soref, R. A.

Starck, C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. K.

Sysak, M. N.

Taillaert, D.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Van Campenhout, J.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol.1(11), 1–7 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wakita, K.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yariv, A.

Young, R. W.

Zadok, A.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett.47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol.1(11), 1–7 (2004).

Nat. Photonics

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and J. F. Damlencourt, “Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode,” Opt. Express14(22), 10838–10843 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector,” Opt. Express15(21), 13539–13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
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M. N. Sysak, J. O. Anthes, J. E. Bowers, O. Raday, and R. Jones, “Integration of hybrid silicon lasers and electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express16(17), 12478–12486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

IBM. Microelectronics Specialty Foundry Selection Guide, downloadable from: http://public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/en/tgb03009usen/TGB03009USEN.PDF

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” in Proc. 5th IEEE Int’l Conf. Group IV Photonics, Sorrento, Italy, Sept. 2008, pp. 4–6. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4638077 .

O. Raz, L. Liu, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo–Romeo, J.-M. Fédéli, and H. J. S. Dorren, “High speed wavelength conversion in a heterogeneously integrated disk laser over silicon on insulator for network on a chip applications,” presented at the 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), Paper 4.2.3, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device structure of an InP microdisk modulator heterogeneously integrated on a SOI waveguide. a) Schematic view of the final device including the final metalization. b) Optical microscope image of the InP microdisk modulator before the final pad metallization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Static electrical characteristics of the InP microdisk modulator with and without light in the waveguide. The image also displays the dark IV-curves for more than 30 devices on the same chip. b) Static optical characteristics of the InP microdisk modulator. Transmission characteristics of one device for several negative bias voltages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement apparatus for high–speed measurements (eye diagrams and bit–error rate test).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical eye diagrams of InP microdisk modulator: a) at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s, b) at a bit rate of 5.0 Gb/s. c) at a bit rate of 10 Gb/s, and d) electrical eye at a bit rate of 10 Gb/s and using an ac-coupled photo receiver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Bit–error rate measurements of the InP microdisk modulator and a commercial modulator with bit rates of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Gb/s. Eye diagrams for operation at 10 Gb/s and b) a PRBS length of 27 – 1 c) a PRBS length of 231 – 1.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Epitaxial Layer Stack of the InP Microdisk Modulator

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Table 2 Comparison of the Present Work with State–of–the–Art Modulators in Terms of Drive Voltage, Area, Speed, Static Extinction Ratio and Energy Consumption per Bit [23].

Equations (2)

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E bit,curr =0.5[ I 1 V 1 + I 0 V 0 ]/BR=7fJ/bit.
E bit,cap =0.5 1 2 C a V pp 2 =36fJ/bit

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