Abstract

We report on the modulation characteristics of indium phosphide (InP) based microdisks heterogeneously integrated on a silicon–on–insulator (SOI) waveguide. We present static extinction ratios and dynamic operation up to 10 Gb/s. Operation with a bit–error rate below 1 × 10−9 is demonstrated at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Gb/s and the performance is compared with that of a commercial modulator. Power penalties are analyzed with respect to the pattern length. The power consumption is calculated and compared with state–of–the–art integrated modulator concepts. We demonstrate that InP microdisk modulators combine low–power and low–voltage operation with low footprint and high–speed. Moreover, the devices can be fabricated using the same technology as for lasers, detectors and wavelength converters, making them very attractive for co–integration.

© 2012 OSA

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J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
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2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (5)

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Sysak, J. O. Anthes, J. E. Bowers, O. Raday, and R. Jones, “Integration of hybrid silicon lasers and electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12478–12486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(11), 1–7 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anthes, J. O.

Asghari, M.

Atwater, H. A.

Baets, R.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(11), 1–7 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet–Gamard, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boucart, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouche, N.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Brillouet, F.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

Carpentier, D.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, H.-W.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christiaens, I.

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(11), 1–7 (2004).

Cohen, O.

Damlencourt, J. F.

De Mesel, K.

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(11), 1–7 (2004).

De Vries, T.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Derouin, E.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Diest, K. A.

Dong, P.

Dorren, H. J. S.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

Fidaner, O.

Fortin, C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaborit, F.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghaffari, A.

Goldstein, L.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Halbwax, M.

Harris, J. S.

Hofrichter, J.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kamins, T. I.

Kawano, K.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kotaka, I.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kuo, Y. H.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Lagahe, C.

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Lentine, A. L.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A. S.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maine, S.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mitomi, O.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, M.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nojima, S.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Offrein, B. J.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

Plais, A.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Raday, O.

Raz, O.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remy, J. C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(11), 1–7 (2004).

Rojo Romeo, P.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Rooks, M. J.

Roth, J. E.

Rubin, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salet, P.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaevitz, R. K.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shearn, M. J.

Smit, M.

Soref, R. A.

Starck, C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. K.

Sysak, M. N.

Taillaert, D.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Van Campenhout, J.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(11), 1–7 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wakita, K.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yariv, A.

Young, R. W.

Zadok, A.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow–power all–optical wavelength conversion in a silicon–on–insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III–V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, L. Liu, G. Morthier, F. Horst, P. Regreny, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, “All–optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(16), 927–929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouche, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet–Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and Tunnel–Junction InectionL A CW RT Monolithic Long–Wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low–loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. De Mesel, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Adhesive wafer bonding with Benzocyclobutene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(11), 1–7 (2004).

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano, and M. Naganuma, “Chirping Characteristic and Frequency Response of MQW Optical Intensity Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 71–77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide–integrated ultralow–energy GeSi electro–absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and J. F. Damlencourt, “Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10838–10843 (2006).
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M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
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M. N. Sysak, J. O. Anthes, J. E. Bowers, O. Raday, and R. Jones, “Integration of hybrid silicon lasers and electroabsorption modulators,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12478–12486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
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Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
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W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
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J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10102–10108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13539–13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1997).

O. Raz, L. Liu, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo–Romeo, J.-M. Fédéli, and H. J. S. Dorren, “High speed wavelength conversion in a heterogeneously integrated disk laser over silicon on insulator for network on a chip applications,” presented at the 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), Paper 4.2.3, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” in Proc. 5th IEEE Int’l Conf. Group IV Photonics, Sorrento, Italy, Sept. 2008, pp. 4–6. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4638077 .

IBM. Microelectronics Specialty Foundry Selection Guide, downloadable from: http://public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/en/tgb03009usen/TGB03009USEN.PDF

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device structure of an InP microdisk modulator heterogeneously integrated on a SOI waveguide. a) Schematic view of the final device including the final metalization. b) Optical microscope image of the InP microdisk modulator before the final pad metallization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Static electrical characteristics of the InP microdisk modulator with and without light in the waveguide. The image also displays the dark IV-curves for more than 30 devices on the same chip. b) Static optical characteristics of the InP microdisk modulator. Transmission characteristics of one device for several negative bias voltages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement apparatus for high–speed measurements (eye diagrams and bit–error rate test).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical eye diagrams of InP microdisk modulator: a) at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s, b) at a bit rate of 5.0 Gb/s. c) at a bit rate of 10 Gb/s, and d) electrical eye at a bit rate of 10 Gb/s and using an ac-coupled photo receiver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Bit–error rate measurements of the InP microdisk modulator and a commercial modulator with bit rates of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Gb/s. Eye diagrams for operation at 10 Gb/s and b) a PRBS length of 27 – 1 c) a PRBS length of 231 – 1.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Epitaxial Layer Stack of the InP Microdisk Modulator

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Table 2 Comparison of the Present Work with State–of–the–Art Modulators in Terms of Drive Voltage, Area, Speed, Static Extinction Ratio and Energy Consumption per Bit [23].

Equations (3)

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P dB 10log( E R lin +1 E R lin 1 ).
E bit,curr =0.5[ I 1 V 1 + I 0 V 0 ]/BR=7fJ/bit.
E bit,cap =0.5 1 2 C a V pp 2 =36fJ/bit

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