Abstract

We report a multi-mode interference-based optical gate switch using a Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film with a diameter of only 1 µm. The switching operation was demonstrated by laser pulse irradiation. This switch had a very wide operating wavelength range of 100 nm at around 1575 nm, with an average extinction ratio of 12.6 dB. Repetitive switching over 2,000 irradiation cycles was also successfully demonstrated. In addition, self-holding characteristics were confirmed by observing the dynamic responses, and the rise and fall times were 130 ns and 400 ns, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (4)

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Non-blocking 4x4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks,” Opt. Express 19(1), 47–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mizukami, J. Yamaguchi, N. Nemoto, Y. Kawajiri, H. Hirata, S. Uchiyama, M. Makihara, T. Sakata, N. Shimoyama, and K. Oda, “128×128 three-dimensional MEMS optical switch module with simultaneous optical path connection for optical cross-connect systems,” Appl. Opt. 50(21), 4037–4041 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25225–25231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Dyball, “A matter of change,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Ito, M. Yasumoto, K. Nashimoto, and H. Tsuda, ““High-speed photonic functional circuits using electrically controllable PLZT waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 92-C, 713–718 (2009).

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. Suzuki, T. Yamada, O. Moriwaki, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Polarization-insensitive operation of lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer with silica PLC-based polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 773–775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, T. Saiki, and H. Tsuda, “Proposal of a small self-holding 2 × 2 optical switch using phase-change material,” IEICE Electron. Express 5(12), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, and M. Lipson, “All-optical compact silicon comb switch,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9600–9605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

B. Stegmueller, E. Baur, and M. Kicherer, “15-GHz modulation performance of integrated DFB laser diode EA modulator with identical multiple-quantum-well double-stack active layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1647–1649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. C. Alferness, “Waveguide electrooptic switch arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6(7), 1117–1130 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Akahira, N.

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, “Waveguide electrooptic switch arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6(7), 1117–1130 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Baur, E.

B. Stegmueller, E. Baur, and M. Kicherer, “15-GHz modulation performance of integrated DFB laser diode EA modulator with identical multiple-quantum-well double-stack active layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1647–1649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

Dong, P.

Dyball, H.

H. Dyball, “A matter of change,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Ford, J. E.

Friedrich, I.

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, S.

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Gustavsson, M.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, H.

Hotta, Y.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ikuma, Y.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, T. Saiki, and H. Tsuda, “Proposal of a small self-holding 2 × 2 optical switch using phase-change material,” IEICE Electron. Express 5(12), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, J.

J. Ito, M. Yasumoto, K. Nashimoto, and H. Tsuda, ““High-speed photonic functional circuits using electrically controllable PLZT waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 92-C, 713–718 (2009).

Jahnes, C. V.

Janson, M.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

Kawajiri, Y.

Kawashima, H.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawasugi, M.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kicherer, M.

B. Stegmueller, E. Baur, and M. Kicherer, “15-GHz modulation performance of integrated DFB laser diode EA modulator with identical multiple-quantum-well double-stack active layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1647–1649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kitatani, T.

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuwahara, M.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lagerström, B.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Lundgren, L.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Makihara, M.

Michihata, S.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mizukami, M.

Moriwaki, O.

K. Suzuki, T. Yamada, O. Moriwaki, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Polarization-insensitive operation of lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer with silica PLC-based polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 773–775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mörner, A.-C.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nashimoto, K.

J. Ito, M. Yasumoto, K. Nashimoto, and H. Tsuda, ““High-speed photonic functional circuits using electrically controllable PLZT waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 92-C, 713–718 (2009).

Nemoto, N.

Nishiuchi, K.

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

Oguri, H.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, E.

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, M.

K. Suzuki, T. Yamada, O. Moriwaki, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Polarization-insensitive operation of lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer with silica PLC-based polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 773–775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papadimitriou, G. I.

Papazoglou, C.

Pirch, N.

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pomportsis, A. S.

Preble, S. F.

Rask, M.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saad Khan, M. D.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saiki, T.

Y. Ikuma, T. Saiki, and H. Tsuda, “Proposal of a small self-holding 2 × 2 optical switch using phase-change material,” IEICE Electron. Express 5(12), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, T.

Sakurai, Y.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shimoyama, N.

Shiota, T.

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, Y.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solgaard, O.

Stegmueller, B.

B. Stegmueller, E. Baur, and M. Kicherer, “15-GHz modulation performance of integrated DFB laser diode EA modulator with identical multiple-quantum-well double-stack active layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1647–1649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, B.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, T. Yamada, O. Moriwaki, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Polarization-insensitive operation of lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer with silica PLC-based polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 773–775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Suzuki, T. Yamada, O. Moriwaki, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Polarization-insensitive operation of lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer with silica PLC-based polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 773–775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takao, M.

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, K.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, D.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thylén, L.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toyosaki, T.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ito, M. Yasumoto, K. Nashimoto, and H. Tsuda, ““High-speed photonic functional circuits using electrically controllable PLZT waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 92-C, 713–718 (2009).

Y. Ikuma, T. Saiki, and H. Tsuda, “Proposal of a small self-holding 2 × 2 optical switch using phase-change material,” IEICE Electron. Express 5(12), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

Ueda, Y.

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, N.

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Utaka, K.

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, X.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weidenhof, V.

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Wuttig, M.

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

K. Suzuki, T. Yamada, O. Moriwaki, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Polarization-insensitive operation of lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer with silica PLC-based polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 773–775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, J.

Yang, M.

Yasumoto, M.

J. Ito, M. Yasumoto, K. Nashimoto, and H. Tsuda, ““High-speed photonic functional circuits using electrically controllable PLZT waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 92-C, 713–718 (2009).

Zheng, X.

Ziegler, S.

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

E (1)

J. Ito, M. Yasumoto, K. Nashimoto, and H. Tsuda, ““High-speed photonic functional circuits using electrically controllable PLZT waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 92-C, 713–718 (2009).

Electron. Lett. (5)

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerström, L. Thylén, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A.-C. Mörner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, “Monolithically integrated 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28(24), 2223–2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Dyball, “A matter of change,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” Electron. Lett. 46(21), 1460–1462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 268–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

R. C. Alferness, “Waveguide electrooptic switch arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6(7), 1117–1130 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

K. Suzuki, T. Yamada, O. Moriwaki, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Polarization-insensitive operation of lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer with silica PLC-based polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 773–775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueda, S. Nakamura, S. Fujimoto, H. Yamada, K. Utaka, T. Shiota, and T. Kitatani, “Polarization-independent low-crosstalk operation of InAlGaAs-InAlAs Mach-Zehender interferometer-type photonic switch with hybrid waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1118–1120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Stegmueller, E. Baur, and M. Kicherer, “15-GHz modulation performance of integrated DFB laser diode EA modulator with identical multiple-quantum-well double-stack active layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1647–1649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakurai, M. Kawasugi, Y. Hotta, M. D. Saad Khan, H. Oguri, K. Takeuchi, S. Michihata, and N. Uehara, “LCOS-based wavelength blocker array with channel-by-channel variable center wavelength and bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 989–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

Y. Ikuma, T. Saiki, and H. Tsuda, “Proposal of a small self-holding 2 × 2 optical switch using phase-change material,” IEICE Electron. Express 5(12), 442–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (5)

D. Strand, D. V. Tsu, R. Miller, M. Hennessey, and D. Jablonski, “Optical routers based on ovonic phase change materials,” in Proceedings of European Phase Change and Ovonic Symposium (Grenoble, France, 2006).

T. Toyosaki, D. Tanaka, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Phase change characteristics of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film for a self-holding optical gate switch,” in Proceedings of Photonics West (San Francisco, CA, 2011), 7943–05.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible switching of an optical gate based on Si rib waveguides with a Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film,” in Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Access Space (Yokohama, Japan, 2011), GS3-B-2.

H. Tsuda, D. Tanaka, T. Toyosaki, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, and H. Kawashima, “Small-sized self-holding optical switch using phase-change material,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Stockholm, Sweden, 2011), Mo.B5.3.

H. Tsuda, “Proposal of an optical switch using phase-change material for future photonic network nodes,” in Proceedings of 19th Symposium on Phase Change Optical Information Storage (Atami, Japan, 2007), pp. 39–42.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of proposed optical gate switch using a Ge2Sb2Te5 film with a 1 × 1 multi-mode interference (MMI) waveguide. (a) Three-dimensional view of the switch. (b) Two-dimensional view of a cross-section in the switching region. (c) Light propagation image in the multi-mode waveguide. The yellow arrow expresses the MMI phenomenon in the waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulation model of the multi-mode waveguide with the Ge2Sb2Te5 film. (b) Light propagation images without the Ge2Sb2Te5 film, with the amorphous (ON-state) and crystalline (OFF-state) Ge2Sb2Te5 film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulation model of the multi-mode waveguide around the Ge2Sb2Te5 film. (b) Electric field (TE-polarized) images of waveguide cross section without the Ge2Sb2Te5 film, with the amorphous (ON-state) and crystalline (OFF-state) Ge2Sb2Te5 film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of the fabricated switch with the Ge2Sb2Te5 film. (a) Top view of the switch. (b) Enlarged view around the Ge2Sb2Te5 film. (c) Cross section of the waveguide. (d) Enlarged view of cross section.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for device characterization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission losses as a function of wavelength. Transmission losses with the initial, the ON (amorphized), and the OFF (crystallized) states of the Ge2Sb2Te5 film were measured.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission losses with repetitive switching operation. (a) From 900 to 1,100 irradiation cycles. (b) From 1,800 to 2,000 irradiation cycles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dynamic responses with OFF/ON/OFF operation. (a) Waveforms of laser pulses and optical output with OFF/ON/OFF operation. (b) Enlarged view of waveforms with OFF/ON and ON/OFF operation.

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