Abstract

Combination of overlapping pulse position modulation and pulse width modulation at the transmitter and grouped bit-flipping algorithm for low-density parity-check decoding at the receiver are proposed for visible Light Emitting Diode (LED) indoor communication system in this paper. The results demonstrate that, with the same Photodetector, the bit rate can be increased and the performance of the communication system can be improved by the scheme we proposed. Compared with the standard bit-flipping algorithm, the grouped bit-flipping algorithm can achieve more than 2.0 dB coding gain at bit error rate of 10−5. By optimizing the encoding of overlapping pulse position modulation and pulse width modulation symbol, the performance can be further improved. It is reasonably expected that the bit rate can be upgraded to 400 Mbit/s with a single available LED, thus transmission rate beyond 1 Gbit/s is foreseen by RGB LEDs.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
  2. E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.
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  13. D. J. C. MacKay, “Good error-correcting codes based on very sparse matrices,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 399–431 (1999).
  14. J. Hamkins, “Performance of binary turbo coded 256-ppm,” TMO Progress Report (1999), pp. 42–138.
  15. B. Bai, Z. Y. Xu, and Y. Y. Fan, “Joint LED dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping PPM,” in Proc. WOCC (2010), pp. 1–5.
  16. G. Ungerboeck, “Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 55–67 (1982).

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (3)

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Performance analysis of space time block coding techniques for indoor optical wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1545–1552 (2009).

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

2008 (1)

B. Rong, T. Jiang, X. Li, and M. R. Soleymani, “Combine LDPC codes over GF(q) with q-ary modulations for bandwidth efficient transmission,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 54, 78–84 (2008).

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).

2004 (1)

X. Li and M. R. Soleymani, “A proof of the Hadamard transform decoding of the belief propagation algorithm for LDPCC over GF(q),” in Proc. VTC (2004), Vol.  4, pp. 2518–2519.

1999 (1)

D. J. C. MacKay, “Good error-correcting codes based on very sparse matrices,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 399–431 (1999).

1995 (1)

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Capacity and cutoff rate for optical overlapping pulse-position modulation channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 1284–1288 (1995).

1982 (1)

G. Ungerboeck, “Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 55–67 (1982).

Bai, B.

B. Bai, Z. Y. Xu, and Y. Y. Fan, “Joint LED dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping PPM,” in Proc. WOCC (2010), pp. 1–5.

Buttner, A.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

Chen, J.

Chen, W.

Cho, E.

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

Choi, J. H.

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

Fan, Y. Y.

B. Bai, Z. Y. Xu, and Y. Y. Fan, “Joint LED dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping PPM,” in Proc. WOCC (2010), pp. 1–5.

Faulkner, G. E.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Gallager, R. G.

R. G. Gallager, Low-Density Parity-Check Codes (MIT Press, 1963).

Ghassemlooy, Z.

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

Habel, K.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011), paper OWB6.

Hamkins, J.

J. Hamkins, “Performance of binary turbo coded 256-ppm,” TMO Progress Report (1999), pp. 42–138.

Jiang, T.

B. Rong, T. Jiang, X. Li, and M. R. Soleymani, “Combine LDPC codes over GF(q) with q-ary modulations for bandwidth efficient transmission,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 54, 78–84 (2008).

Jung, D.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Kamalakis, T.

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Performance analysis of space time block coding techniques for indoor optical wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1545–1552 (2009).

Kang, M.

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).

Kottke, C.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011), paper OWB6.

Langer, K. D.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

Langer, K.-D.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011), paper OWB6.

Lee, C. G.

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

Lee, K.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Li, X.

B. Rong, T. Jiang, X. Li, and M. R. Soleymani, “Combine LDPC codes over GF(q) with q-ary modulations for bandwidth efficient transmission,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 54, 78–84 (2008).

X. Li and M. R. Soleymani, “A proof of the Hadamard transform decoding of the belief propagation algorithm for LDPCC over GF(q),” in Proc. VTC (2004), Vol.  4, pp. 2518–2519.

MacKay, D. J. C.

D. J. C. MacKay, “Good error-correcting codes based on very sparse matrices,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 399–431 (1999).

Minh, H. L.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Nerreter, S.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

Ntogari, G.

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Performance analysis of space time block coding techniques for indoor optical wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1545–1552 (2009).

O’Brien, D.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Oh, Y-J.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Park, C.

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

Rong, B.

B. Rong, T. Jiang, X. Li, and M. R. Soleymani, “Combine LDPC codes over GF(q) with q-ary modulations for bandwidth efficient transmission,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 54, 78–84 (2008).

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).

Shalaby, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Capacity and cutoff rate for optical overlapping pulse-position modulation channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 1284–1288 (1995).

Shin, M.

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

Soleymani, M. R.

B. Rong, T. Jiang, X. Li, and M. R. Soleymani, “Combine LDPC codes over GF(q) with q-ary modulations for bandwidth efficient transmission,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 54, 78–84 (2008).

X. Li and M. R. Soleymani, “A proof of the Hadamard transform decoding of the belief propagation algorithm for LDPCC over GF(q),” in Proc. VTC (2004), Vol.  4, pp. 2518–2519.

Sphicopoulos, T.

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Performance analysis of space time block coding techniques for indoor optical wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1545–1552 (2009).

Ungerboeck, G.

G. Ungerboeck, “Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 55–67 (1982).

Vucic, J.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011), paper OWB6.

Walewski, J. W.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

Wang, Z. X.

Won, E. T.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Xu, Z. Y.

B. Bai, Z. Y. Xu, and Y. Y. Fan, “Joint LED dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping PPM,” in Proc. WOCC (2010), pp. 1–5.

Yu, C. Y.

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

Zhong, W. D.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Performance analysis of space time block coding techniques for indoor optical wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1545–1552 (2009).

L. Zeng, D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y-J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654–1662 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511–1513 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

B. Rong, T. Jiang, X. Li, and M. R. Soleymani, “Combine LDPC codes over GF(q) with q-ary modulations for bandwidth efficient transmission,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 54, 78–84 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Capacity and cutoff rate for optical overlapping pulse-position modulation channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 1284–1288 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (2)

D. J. C. MacKay, “Good error-correcting codes based on very sparse matrices,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 399–431 (1999).

G. Ungerboeck, “Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 55–67 (1982).

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. VTC (1)

X. Li and M. R. Soleymani, “A proof of the Hadamard transform decoding of the belief propagation algorithm for LDPCC over GF(q),” in Proc. VTC (2004), Vol.  4, pp. 2518–2519.

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).

Other (5)

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, M. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proc. NOC (2011), pp. 32–35.

J. Hamkins, “Performance of binary turbo coded 256-ppm,” TMO Progress Report (1999), pp. 42–138.

B. Bai, Z. Y. Xu, and Y. Y. Fan, “Joint LED dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping PPM,” in Proc. WOCC (2010), pp. 1–5.

R. G. Gallager, Low-Density Parity-Check Codes (MIT Press, 1963).

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011), paper OWB6.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

4-order OPPM symbols with the pulse-width of 6 slots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LED indoor communication system utilizing OPPM and PWM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The flow chart of GBF algorithm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER of OPPM-PWM LED communication system. Left: 4-order. Right: 16-order.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup of visible indoor communication system utilizing OPPM-PWM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Received waveforms of OOK modulated optical signals(a, b) and 16-order OPPM-PWM modulated signals (c, d) after transmitting 3.0cm in free space. Left: 50Mbit/s. Right: 80Mbit/s. (e, f) are the magnified figures of (c, d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Q factor of the optical signal after transmitting different distance in free space.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER improvement achieved by the modified encoding of OPPM-PWM symbols. Left: Comparison between BER of modified encoding and that of natural encoding. Right: The BER ratio of modified encoding over natural encoding.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 OPPM-PWM symbol with minimum pulse-width of 6 slots

Tables Icon

Table 2 Modified encoding of OPPM-PWM modulation symbol

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